An analysis of the pro-social behaviors of customers in response to the firms’ service quality

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Economics, Management & Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 MSc of Business Administration, Persian Gulf University

3 Faculty of Economic & Administrative Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Nowadays, the awareness of service firms’ managers about the crucial role of customers in the success or failure of their business has increased. This has led them to this fact that the best strategy for surviving in the marketplace is encouraging customers’ prosocial behaviors in service delivery process. Reasonably, one of the best strategies to encourage customers toward these behaviors is service delivering quality. Despite the importance of this issue, marketing researchers have not investigated the effect of customers’ perceived service quality on their prosocial behaviors yet. The current study aims to bridge this research gap. Hence, a sample consisting of 381 customers of passenger transportation agencies (ground transportation), in the city of Shiraz, by convenient method were selected and surveyed. In addition, based on the theoretical framework of the research variables, the conceptual model was proposed. Finally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses and it was found that the customers' perception of service quality, through affecting their satisfaction, can be reflected in their prosocial responses toward the agency. Furthermore, the customers' perception of setting and staff's dimension of service quality respectively have more positive effect on their satisfaction.


Main Subjects

Akbaba, A. (2006). “Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: A study in a business hotel in Turkey”. Hospitality Management, (25), 170–192.
Akbar, M. & Parvez, N. (2009). “Impact Of Service Quality, Trust And Customer Satifaction Engender Customers Loyalty”. ABAC Journal, 21(9), 24-38.
Aldlaigan, A. & Buttle, F. (2002). “SYSTRA-SQ: a new measure of bank service quality”. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13(4), 362-381.
Anand, S. & Selvaraj, M. (2012). “The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Indian Banking Sector: An Empirical Study through SERVPERF”. Int. J. Manag. Bus. Res, 2(2), 151-163.
Angelova, B. & Zekiri, J. (2011). “Measuring Customer Satisfaction with Service Quality Using American Customer Satisfaction Model (ACSI Model)”. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(1), 232-258.
Bailey, J. J; Gremler, D. D. & McCollough, M. A. (2001). “Service Encounter Emotional Value: The Dyadic Influence of Customer and Employee Emotions”. Services marketing quarterly, 23(1), 1-26.
Barroso, C.; Carrión, G. C. & Roldán, J. L. (2010). “Applying Maximum Likelihood and PLS on Different Sample Sizes: Studies on SERVQUAL Model and Employee Behavior Model”. In V. E. Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang, Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications (pp. 427-447). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Bartikowski, B. & Walsh, G. (2011). “Investigating mediators between corporate reputation and customer citizenship behaviors”. Journal of Business Research, 64,(1) 39–44.
Bateman, T. S. & Organ, D. W. (1983). “Job Satisfaction and the Good Soldier: The Relationship between Affect and Employee "Citizenship"”. The Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587-595.
Bettencourt, L. A. (1997). “Customer Voluntary Performance: Customers As Partners In Service –Delivery”. Journal of Retailing,, 73(3), 383-406.
Bove, L.; Simon, P.; Sharon, B. & Edward, S. (2009). “Service worker role in encouraging customer organizational citizenship behaviors”. Journal of Business Research, 62(7), 698-705.
Bowen, D. E. (1990). “Interdisciplinary study of service: Some progress, some prospects”. Journal of Business Research, 20(1), 71-79.
Chang, H.-L. & Yang, C.-H. (2008). “Explore airlines’ brand niches through measuring passengers’ repurchase motivation—an application of Rasch measurement”. Journal of Air Transport Management, 14(3), 105-112.
Chen, C.-F. (2008). “Investigating structural relationships between service quality, perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions for air passengers: Evidence from Taiwan”. Transportation Research, 42(4), 709-717.
Cheng-Huaa, Y. & Hsin-Li, C. (2012). “Exploring the perceived competence of airport ground staff in dealing with unruly passenger behaviors”. Tourism Management, 33(3), 611-621.
Chin, W. W. (2010). “How toWrite Up and Report PLS Analyses”. In O. Gotz, K. Liehr-Gobbers, & M. Krafft, Handbook of partial least squares : concepts, methods and applications (pp. 655-690). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Eboli, L. & Mazzulla, G. (2007). “Service quality attributes affecting customer satisfaction for bus transit”. Journal of Public Transportation, 10(3), 21-34.
Elliott, K. M. & Roach, D. W. (1993). “Are Carriers Getting an Unbiased Evaluation from Consumers?”. Service Quality in the Airline Industry, 9(2), 71-82.
Esmailpour, M.; Zadeh, M. B. & Hoseini, E. H. (2012). “The Influence of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction: Customers of Boushehr Bank Sepah as a Case Study”. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Redearch in Business, 3(9), 1149-1159.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error”. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39.
Fowler, J. (2013). “Customer Citizenship Behavior: An Expanded Theoretical Understanding”. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(5), 1-8.
Garma, R. & Bove, L. (2011). “Contributing to well-being: customer citizenship behaviors directed to service personnel”. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(7), 633-649.
Gilbert, D. & Wong, R. K. (2003). “Passenger expectations and airline services: a Hong Kong based study”. Tourism Management, 24(5), 519-532.
Gotz, O.; Liehr-Gobbers, K. & Krafft, M. (2010). “Evaluation of Structural
40 (IJMS) Vol. 9, No. 1, Junuary 2016
Equation Models Using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach”. In M. J. Vilares, M. H. Almeida, & P. S. Coelho, Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications (pp. 691-711). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Gourdin, K. N. (1988). “Bringing quality back to commercial travel”. Transportation Journal, 27(3), 23-29.
Graham, J. W. & Organ, D. W. (1993). “Commitment And The Covenantal Organization”. Journal of Managerial Issues, 5(4), 483-502.
Gruen, T. (1995). “The Outcome Set of Relationship Marketing in Consumer”. International Business Review, 4(4), 447-69.
Hair , J. F.; Ringle, C. M. & Marko, S. (2011). “PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet”. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-151.
Hair, J. F.; Hult, T.; Ringle, C. M. & Sastedt, M. (2013). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (1 ed.). sage publication.
Han, S.; Hamb, S.; Yang, I. & Baek, S. (2012). “Passengers’ perceptions of airline lounges: Importance of attributes that determine usage and service quality measurement”. Tourism Management, 33(5), 1103-1111.
Hulland, J.; Ryan, M. J. & Rayner, R. K. (2010). “Modeling Customer Satisfaction: A Comparative Performance Evaluation of Covariance Structure Analysis Versus Partial Least Squares”. In M. J. Vilares, M. H. Almeida, & P. S. Coelho, Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications (pp. 307-325). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Keh, H. & Teo, C. (2001). “Retail customers as partial employees in service provision: a conceptual framework”. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29(8), 370-378.
Kheng, L.; Mahamad, O.; Ramayah, T. & Mosahab, R. (2010). “The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty: A Study of Banks in Penang, Malaysia”. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 2(2), 57-66.
Lai, W.-T. & Chen, C.-F. (2011). “Behavioral intentions of public transit passengers—The roles of service quality, perceived value,satisfaction and involvement”. Transport Policy, 18(2), 318-325.
Parasuraman, A.; Zeithaml, V. & Berry, L. L. (1988). “SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer”. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40.
Park, J.-W.; Robertson, R. & Wu, C.-L. (2004). “The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: a Korean case study”. Journal of Air Transport Management, 10(6), 435-439.
Patterson, P.; Razzaque, M. & Terry, C. (2003). “Customer Citizenship Behaviourin Service Organisations: A Social Exchange Model”. Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Academy Conference (pp. 2079-2089). Adelaide: University of suth Australia.
Rhoden, S.; Ralston, R. & Ineson, E. M. (2008). “Cabin crew training to control disruptive airline passenger behavior: cause for tourism concern”. Tourism Management, 29(3), 538-547.
Romana, G. & Liliana L. B. (2011). “Contributing to well- being: customer citizens hip behavio rs directed to service personnel”. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(7), 633–649.
Saeed, I.; Niazi, M.; Arif, M. & Jehan, N. (2011). “Antecedents of Customer satisfaction and its outcomes A study of Pakistani service sector”. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(8), 877-889.
Vilares, M. J.; Almeida, M. H. & Coelho, P. S. (2010). “Comparison of Likelihood and PLS Estimators for Structural Equation Modeling: A Simulation with Customer Satisfaction Data”. In M. J. Vilares, M. H. Almeida, & P. S. Coelho, Handbook of Partial Least Squares: concepts, Methods and Applications (pp. 289-305). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Wu, C.-J. (2011). “A re-examination of the antecedents and impact of customer participation in service”. The Service Industries Journal, 31(6), 863-876.
Yang, K.-C.; Hsieh, T.-C.; Li, H. & Yang, C. (2012). “Assessing how service quality, airline image and customer value affect the intentions of passengers regarding low cost carriers”. Journal of Air Transport Management, 20, 52-53.
Yi, Youjae; Gong, Taeshik. (2006). “The Antecedents and Consequences of Service Customer Citizenship and Badness Behavior”. Seoul Journal of Business, 12(2), 145-176.
Yi, Youjae & Gong, Taeshik. (2008). “The effects of customer justice perception and affect on customer citizenship behavior and customer dysfunctional behavior”. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(7), 767-783.