Co-Creation Intention; Presenting a Model of Antecedents and its Impact on Attitude Toward the Product (Case Study in Shatel Company)

Document Type: Research Paper


Faculty of Management & Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran


Virtual co-creation is a tool which assists marketers in better recognizing customers’ needs and in increasing new products success rates. Despite the importance of co-creation in new product development, little empirical research is being conducted in order to clarify the concept. Studies are mostly company centric, overlooking consumer’s value perception of co-creation and how it affects his behavior. Thus, this research intends to analyze the customers’ value perceptions of virtual co-creation, considering the effect of self-efficacy on the correlation between their perceived value and co-creation intention, and eventually study the impact of co-creation intention on attitude toward the product. To do so, Shatel’s voice of the customer website was selected as an example of virtual co-creation and a questionnaire was distributed among 446 customers of this company. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling and SPSS18 and Amos22 software. Results showed that customers perceived virtual co-creation valuable and self-efficacy had no significant impact on value perceptions of the participants regarding this process. Moreover, according to the findings, co-creation leads to positive attitudes toward the product.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

قصد هم‌آفرینی محصول؛ ارائه ی مدلی از پیشایندها و تأثیرآن بر نگرش نسبت به محصول (پژوهشی در شرکت شاتل)

Authors [Persian]

  • مرتضی سلطانی
  • غلامرضا جندقی
  • پریسا فروزنده شهرکی
استادیاز دانشگاه تهران
Abstract [Persian]

هم‌آفرینی مجازی ابزاری است که به بازاریابان کمک می‌کند تا درک بهتری از نیازهای مشتریان پیدا کنند و نرخ موفقیت محصولات جدید را افزایش دهند. با وجود اهمیت هم‌آفرینی در توسعة محصول جدید، مطالعات تجربی اندکی جهت تصریح این پدیده انجام شده است. به‌علاوه، این پژوهش‌ها غالباً سازمان محور است و دیدگاه ارزشی مشتری از هم‌آفرینی و چگونگی تأثیر این دیدگاه بر رفتار وی را نادیده می‌گیرد. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر درصدد است تا ارزش ادراکی مشتری از هم‌آفرینی مجازی را بسنجد، با در نظر گرفتن خودکارآمدی تأثیر این دیدگاه ارزشی بر قصد هم‌آفرینی را ارزیابی و در نهایت اثر قصد هم‌آفرینی بر نگرش نسبت به محصول را بررسی کند. بدین منظور بخش صدای مشتری وبسایت شاتل به عنوان نمونة پژوهش انتخاب شده است. پرسشنامه‌ای میان 446 نفر از مشتریان این شرکت توزیع و داده‌های حاصل با استفاده از روش مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری و به‌کمک نرم‌افزارهای SPSS18 و Amos22 تجزیه‌وتحلیل شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که مشتریان هم‌آفرینی مجازی را ارزشمند ادراک می‌کنند و حتی خودکارآمدی هم تأثیری بر دیدگاه ارزشی آن‌ها نسبت به این فرایند ندارد. بعلاوه، بر اساس یافته‌ها هم‌آفرینی منجر به نگرش مثبت نسبت به محصول می‌شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • خودکارآمدی
  • مدل ارزش‌محور پذیرش فناوری
  • نگرش نسبت به محصول
  • هم‌آفرینی مجازی
Alam, I. (2002). An exploratory investigation of user involvement in new service development. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 250-261.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122.

Bijmolt, T. H., Leeflang, P. S., Block, F., Eisenbeiss, M., Hardie, B. G., Lemmens, A., & Saffert, P. (2010). Analytics for customer engagement. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 341-356.

Byrne, B. M. (2010) Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, & programming (2th ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Chang, H., & Wang, H. W. (2011). The moderating effect of customer perceived value on online shopping behaviour. Online Information Review, 35(3), 333-359.

Chen, C. F., & Chen, F. S. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism management, 31(1), 29-35.

Childers, T. L., Carr, C. L., Peck, J., & Carson, S. (2002). Hedonic and utilitarian motivations for online retail shopping behavior. Journal of retailing, 77(4), 511-535.

Chu, C. W., & Lu, H. P. (2007). Factors influencing online music purchase intention in Taiwan: An empirical study based on the value-intention framework. Internet Research, 17(2), 139-155.

Cooper, R. G., & Edgett, S. (2008). Ideation for product innovation: What are the best methods. PDMA Visions Magazine, 1(1), 12-17.

Cortese, M. (2014). Co-creating products with customers (Doctoral dissertation).  LUISS Guido Carli.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 319-340.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: System characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts. International Journal Of Man-Machine Studies, 38(3), 475-487.

Dijk, J., Antonides, G., & Schillewaert, N. (2014). Effects of co‐creation claim on consumer brand perceptions and behavioural intentions. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(1), 110-118.

Franke, N., Keinz, P., & Steger, C. J. (2009). Testing the value of customization: When do customers really prefer products tailored to their preferences? Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 103-121.

Füller, J., MüHlbacher, H., Matzler, K., & Jawecki, G. (2009). Consumer empowerment through internet-based co-creation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(3), 71-102.

Gallarza, M. G., & Saura, I. G. (2006). Value dimensions, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty: an investigation of university students’ travel behaviour. Tourism management, 27(3), 437-452.

Gruner, K. E., & Homburg, C. (2000). Does customer interaction enhance new product success? Journal of Business Research, 49(1), 1-14.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 6). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Ho, Robert (2006). Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis and interpretaion with SPSS. London/Newyork: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hoyer, W. D., Chandy, R., Dorotic, M., Krafft, M., & Singh, S. S. (2010). Consumer cocreation in new product development. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 283-296.

Internet World Stats: Usage and population statistics. (2015). Retrieved on November, 30th from

Jaakkola, E., & Alexander, M. (2014). The role of customer engagement behavior in value co-creation: a service system perspective. Journal of Service Research, 17(3), 247-261.

Jacob, F., & Rettinger, B. (2011). Proceedings from the Naples Forum on Service :The Role of Customer Co-Production in Value Creation. Capri, Italy.

Joshi, P. M. (2003). Reasoned action versus planned behavior in bus use (Doctoral dissertation). The Ohio State University.

Keong, W. E. Y. (2016, August). Proceedings from International Conference of Computer Science & Education (ICCSE): The Determinants of Mobile Shopping Mall Apps Adoption Intention In Malaysia: An Empirical Investigation. IEEE, 341-346.

Khajavi, Sh., Amiri, F. (2013). Recognition of efficient factors affecting in companies’ bankruptcy using TOPSIS_AHP, Empirical Studies in Financial Accounting Quarterly, 11(38), 69-90.

Kim, H. W., Chan, H. C., & Gupta, S. (2007). Value-based adoption of mobile internet: An empirical investigation. Decision Support Systems, 43(1), 111-126.

Kim, Y. H., & Kim, Y. H. (2005, January). Proceedings from the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: A Study of Online Transaction Self-Efficacy, Consumer Trust, and Uncertainty Reduction in Electronic Commerce Transaction., Big Island.’

Ko, E., Kim, E. Y., & Lee, E. K. (2009). Modeling consumer adoption of mobile shopping for fashion products in Korea. Psychology & Marketing, 26(7), 669-687.

Kristensson, P., Matthing, J., & Johansson, N. (2008). Key strategies for the successful involvement of customers in the co-creation of new technology-based services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19(4), 474-491.

Kulviwat, S., C. Bruner II, G., & P. Neelankavil, J. (2014). Self-efficacy as an antecedent of cognition and affect in technology acceptance. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(3), 190-199.

Leavy, B. (2004). Partnering with the customer. Strategy & Leadership,32(3), 10-13.

Legris, P., Ingham, J., & Collerette, P. (2003). Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model. Information & Management, 40(3), 191-204.

Lundkvist, A., & Yakhlef, A. (2004). Customer involvement in new service development: a conversational approach. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 14(2/3), 249-257.

Marketing Science Institute (2014), “Research Priorities 2014-2016.” Cambridge, Mass.: Marketing Science Institute.

Meng, F. (2006). An examination of destination competitiveness from the tourists’ perspective: The relationship between quality of tourism experience and perceived destination competitiveness. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Meuter, M. L., Bitner, M. J., Ostrom, A. L., & Brown, S. W. (2005). Choosing among alternative service delivery modes: An investigation of customer trial of self-service technologies. Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 61-83.

Mohr, J. J., & Sarin, S. (2009). Drucker’s insights on market orientation and innovation: Implications for emerging areas in high-technology marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(1), 85-96.

Moon, J. W., & Kim, Y. G. (2001). Extending the TAM for a world-wide-web context. Information & Management, 38(4), 217-230.

Morris, M. G., & Venkatesh, V. (2000). Age differences in technology adoption decisions: Implications for a changing work force. Personnel Psychology, 53(2), 375-403.

Mullins, J. W., & Sutherland, D. J. (1998). New product development in rapidly changing markets: An exploratory study. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 15(3), 224-236.

Mun, Y. Y., & Hwang, Y. (2003). Predicting the use of web-based information systems: Self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(4), 431-449.

Mustak, M., Jaakkola, E., & Halinen, A. (2013). Customer participation and value creation: A systematic review and research implications. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 23(4), 341-359.

Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management Review, 27(3), 392-413.

Nambisan, S., & Baron, R. A. (2009). Virtual customer environments: testing a model of voluntary participation in value co‐creation activities. Journal of product innovation management, 26(4), 388-406.

Ngugi, I. K., Johnsen, R. E., & Erdélyi, P. (2010). Relational capabilities for value co-creation and innovation in SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(2), 260-278.

Ohern, M., & Rindfleisch, A. (2008). Customer co-creation. Review of Marketing Research, 84-116.

Overby, J. W., & Lee, E. J. (2006). The effects of utilitarian and hedonic online shopping value on consumer preference and intentions. Journal of Business Research, 59(10), 1160-1166.

Piller, F., Schubert, P., Koch, M., & Möslein, K. (2005). Overcoming mass confusion: Collaborative customer co‐design in online communities. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 10(4), 00-00.

Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5-14.

Ramaswamy, V. (2008). Co-creating value through customers' experiences: The Nike case. Strategy & Leadership, 36(5), 9-14.

Roostika, R. (2012). Mobile internet acceptance among university students: A value-based adoption model. International Journal of Research in Management & Technology, 2(1), 21-28.

Sánchez-Fernández, R., & Iniesta-Bonillo, M. Á. (2007). The concept of perceived value: A systematic review of the research. Marketing Theory, 7(4), 427-451.

Sawhney, M., Verona, G., & Prandelli, E. (2005). Collaborating to create: The internet as a platform for customer engagement in product innovation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 19(4), 4-17.

Sotjijoso, A. L. Q. (2012). A consumer approach towards assessing the value of co-creation.

Sweeney, J. C., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Consumer perceived value: The development of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77(2), 203-220.

Thomke, S., & Von Hippel, E. (2002). Innovators. Harvard Business Review, 80(4), 74-81.

Turel, O., Serenko, A., & Bontis, N. (2007). User acceptance of wireless short messaging services: Deconstructing perceived value. Information & Management, 44(1), 63-73.

Van Doorn, J., Lemon, K. N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P., & Verhoef, P. C. (2010). Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 253-266.

Venkatesh, V. (2000). Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating control, intrinsic motivation, and emotion into the technology acceptance model. Information Systems Research, 11(4), 342-365.

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2), 186-204.

Venkatesh, V., & Morris, M. G. (2000). Why don’t men ever stop to ask for directions? Gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior. MIS Quarterly, 115-139.

Weber, M. (2011). Customer co-creation in innovations: A protocol for innovating with end users. Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences Innovation Technology Entrepreneurship Marketing, 507.

Witell, L., Kristensson, P., Gustafsson, A., & Löfgren, M. (2011). Idea generation: Customer co-creation versus traditional market research techniques. Journal of Service Management, 22(2), 140-159.

Woodall, T. (2003). Conceptualising ‘value for the customer’: An attributional, structural and dispositional analysis. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 12(1), 1-42.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. The Journal of Marketing, 2-22.

Zhang, X., & Chen, R. (2008). Examining the mechanism of the value co-creation with customers. International Journal of Production Economics, 116(2), 242-250.