Service Quality and Student Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of University Culture, Reputation and Price in Education Sector of Pakistan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

2 PIQC Institute of Quality, Lahore, Pakistan

3 Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan


Service quality is imperative for higher education institutes in order to remain competitive and growing. There is a need to ensure students’ satisfaction with university. This study will help improve service quality of the institutes. Information and data are collected using a survey questionnaire from the higher education institutes of Pakistan using convenience sampling technique. Findings revealed that with the moderating effect of university culture, university reputation and price, higher education institutes can more significantly achieve the student satisfaction. University culture positively strengthens service quality to achieve and sustain student satisfaction, while price and university reputation strengthen the relationship in a negative direction. These moderators are the significant contributing factors.


Article Title [فارسی]

کیفیت خدمات و رضایت دانشجو: نقش میانجی فرهنگ، شهرت و قیمت در دانشگاه در بخش آموزش پاکستان

Authors [فارسی]

  • شاهزاده سایما سلیم 1
  • کامران موسی 2
  • عبیر امام 3
  • راشد احمد خان 1
1 گروه فناوری اطلاعات COMSATS، لاهور، پاکستان
2 گروه انستیتو فناوری اطلاعات PIQC، لاهور، پاکستان
3 گروه علوم مدیریت، انستیتو فناوری اطلاعات COMSATS، لاهور، پاکستان
Abstract [فارسی]

کیفیت خدمات برای رقابتی ماندن و رشد موسسه­های آموزش عالی ضروری است. در این راستا، حصول اطمینان از رضایت دانشجویان نسبت به دانشگاه یک نیاز مهم محسوب می­شود. این پژوهش، به کاهش شکاف موجود در زمینه کیفیت خدمات قابل ارائه در موسسه­های آموزش عالی کمک می­کند. به این منظور، از پرسشنامه و روش نمونه­گیری تصادفی ساده برای جمع­آوری داده­ها و اطلاعات از موسسه­های آموزش عالی پاکستان استفاده شده است. یافته­ها نشان داد که متغیرهای میانجی فرهنگ، شهرت و قیمت در دانشگاه بر رضایت دانشجویان اثر معنی­داری می­گذارد. فرهنگ دانشگاه با اثر مثبت، موجب ارتقای کیفیت خدمات می­گردد که به نوبه خود سبب رضایت مشتری ­می­شود. در مقابل، قیمت و شهرت دانشگاه دارای اثر منفی است. متغیرهای میانجی مطالعه شده، عوامل مهم و متمایزکننده این مقاله بوده­­اند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • کیفیت خدمات
  • رضایت دانشجو
  • شهرت دانشگاه
  • قیمت
  • فرهنگ دانشگاه
Abdullah, F. (2006). The development of HEdPERF: A new measuring instrument of service quality for the higher education sector. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30, 569-581.
Ahangaran, M. R., Afshar, A., & Ghaed, M. (2016). Evaluating the cultural management of Islamic dressing at universities (Case study: Evaluating the attitude of students (girls and boys) of Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch). Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 9(1), 193-215.
Ali,. A. Y. S., & Mohamed, A. I. (2014). Service quality provided by higher education institutions in Somalia and its impact on student satisfaction. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(11), 143-148.
Andam, R., Montazeri, A., Feizi, S., & Mehdizadeh, R. (2015). Providing a multidimensional measurement model for assessing quality of sport tourism services: Empirical evidence from sport conference as sport event tourism. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 8(4), 607-629.
Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. The Journal of Marketing, 58, 53-66.
Antic, M., & Ceric, A. (2008). Proceedings from 8th International Conference on Organization, Technology, Management in Construction: Organizational Culture of Faculty of Civil Engineering. Zegreb, Croatia.
Athiyaman, A. (1997). Linking student satisfaction and service quality perceptions: The case of university education. European Journal of Marketing, 31, 528-540.
Azizi, S., Kapak, S. J., & Tarhandeh, F. (2014). Physical distribution service quality through Iranian convenience stores retailers’ perspectives: A mixed method approach. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 7(1), 121-150.
Babaei, D., Rahimian, H., Ahmad, A., Omar, Z., & Idris, K. (2015). Ability mediation effects in the relationships between human resource practices and service quality. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 8(1), 5-25.
Bartell, M. (2003). Internationalization of universities: A university culture-based framework. Higher Education, 45, 43-70.
Bei, L. T., & Chiao, Y. C. (2001). An integrated model for the effects of perceived product, perceived service quality, and perceived price fairness on consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior14, 125-140.
Bolton, L. E., Warlop, L., & Alba, J. W. (2003). Consumer perceptions of price (un) fairness. Journal of Consumer Research29, 474-491.
Bromley, D. B. (2000). Psychological aspects of corporate identity, image and reputation. Corporate Reputation Review, 3, 240-252.
Buttle, F. (1996). SERVQUAL: Review, critique and research agenda. European Journal of Marketing, 30, 8-31
Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LIRSEL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). In reliability and validity assessment (Quantitative applications in the social sciences). New York: SAGE Publications.
Chang, J. C. (2009). Taiwanese tourists' perceptions of service quality on outbound guided package tours: A qualitative examination of the SERVQUAL dimensions. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 15, 165-178.
Clemes, M. D., Gan, C., Kao, T. H., & Choong, M. (2008). An empirical analysis of customer satisfaction in international air travel. Innovative Marketing, 4, 50-62.
Creswell, J. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River. NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Cronin, J. J., Brady, M. K., & Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76, 193-218.
Dado, J., Petrovicova, J. T., Cuzovic, S., & Rajic, T. (2012). An empirical examination of the relationships between service quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions in higher education setting. Serbian Journal of Management, 7(20), 203-218.
Dib, H., & Alnazer, M. (2013). The impact of service quality on student satisfaction and behavioral consequences in higher education services. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2(6), 285-290.
Elliott, K. M., & Shin, D. (2002). Student satisfaction: An alternative approach to assessing this important concept. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 24, 197-209.
Enayati, T., Modanloo, Y., Behnamfar, R., & Rezaei, A. (2013). Measuring service quality of Islamic Azad University of Mazandaran using SERVQUAL Model. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 6(1), 99-116.
Eshghi, A., Roy, S. K., & Ganguli, S. (2008). Service quality and customer satisfaction: An empirical investigation in Indian mobile telecommunications services. Marketing Management Journal, 18, 119-144.
Ferdousipour, L. (2016). The relationship among public service motivation, Civic-Organizational Behavior (OBC), and service quality. Iranian Journal of Management Studies9(1), 1-20.
Fombrun, C. (2003). The reputational landscape, in revealing the corporation: Perspectives on identity, image, reputation, corporate branding, and corporate-level marketing. London: Routledge.
Fombrun, C. J., & Van Riel, C. B. M. (2003). Fame & fortune: How the world's top companies develop winning reputations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Gay, L. R., & Airasian, P. W. (2003). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Gotsi, M., & Wilson, A. M. (2001). Corporate reputation seeking a defination. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 6, 24-30.
Gronroos, C. (1990). Service management and marketing, managing the moments of truth in service competition. Lexinton, MA: Lexinton Books.
Grunig, J. E., & Hung, C. J. (2002). Proceedings from the Public Relations Society of America Educator's Academy: The Effect of Relationships on Reputation and Reputation on Relationships: A Cognitive Behavioural Study. Miami, Florida.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Printice- Hall Inc.
Hanif, M., Hafeez, S., & Riaz, A. (2010). Factors affecting customer satisfaction. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 60, 44-52.
Helgesen, O., & Nesset, E. (2007). What accounts for students’ loyalty? Some field study evidence. International Journal of Educational Management, 21, 126-43.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6, 53-60.
Hoyt, J. E., Brown, A. B. (2003). Identifying college choice factors to successfully market your istitution. College and University, 78, 3-10.
Hu, H. H., Kandampully, J., & Juwaheer, T. D. (2009). Relationships and impact of service quality, perceived value, customer  satisfaction and image: An emperical Study. The Service Industry Journal, 29, 111-125.
Huang, T. H., Liu, Y. C., & Chang, H. C. (2012). Learning achievement in solving world-based mathematical questions through a computer assistance learning system. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15, 248-259.
Husain, F., Hanim, S., Fernando, Y., & Nejati, M. (2009). Education service delivery and student's satisfaction: A study of private colleges in Malaysia. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 1, 64-72.
Ijaz, A., Irfan, S. M., Shahbaz, S., Awan, M., & Sabir, M. (2011). An empirical model of student satisfaction: Case of Pakistani public sector business schools. Journal of quality and Technology Management, 7, 91-114.
Iwaarden, V., J., & Van der Wiele, T. (2002). A study on the applicability of SERVQUAL dimensions for websites. Erim Report Series Research in Management.
Kao, T. H. (2007). University students’ satisfaction: An empirical analysis. Master of Commerce and Management Thesis, Lincoln University .
Kordshouli, H. R., Jafarpour, Y., & Bouzanjani, A. A. (2016). An analysis of the pro-social behaviors of customers in response to the firms' service quality. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 9(1), 21-41.
Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of marketing. (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kotter, J. P., & Haskett, J. L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York: Free Press.
Lagrosen, S. (2001). Strengthening the weakest link of TQM-from customer focus to customer understanding. The TQM Magazine, 13, 348-354.
Mavondo, F., Zaman, M., & Abubakar, B. (2000). Proceedings from ANZMAC 2000 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference: Student Satisfaction with Tertiary Institution and Recommending It to Prospective Students. 787-792.
McDougall, G., & Levesque, T. (2000). Customer satisfaction with services: Putting service value into the equation. Journal of Services Marketing, 14, 392-410.
Mulaik, S. A., James, L. R., Alstine, J. V., Bennet, N., Lind, S., & Stillwell, C. D. (1989). Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 430-45.
Murphy, K., and Balzer, W. (1989). Rate error and rating accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 619-624.
Nguyen, N., & LeBlanc, G. (2001). Image and reputation of higher education institutions in students’ retention decisions. International Journal of Educational Management, 15, 303-311.
Ntabathia, M. (2013). Service quality and student satisfaction of students in private universities in Nairobi County. A Research Project for MBA Degree, Nairobi, Kenya.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New Yourk: McGraw Hill.
Owlia, M. S., & Aspinwall, E. M. (1996). A framework for the dimensions of quality in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 4, 12-20.
Owlia, M., & Aspinwall, E. (1998). A framework for measuring quality in engineering education. Total Quality Managemenet, 9, 501-18.
Parasuraman, A., Berry, L., & Zeithaml, V. (1991). Refinement and Reassessment of the SERVQUAL Scale. Journal of Retailing, 67, 420-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49, 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1994). Reassessment of expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality: Implications for further research. Journal of Marketing, 58, 111-124.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 12-40.
Petrick, J. (2002). Development of a multi-dimensional scale for measuring the perceived value of a service. Journal of Leisure Research, 34, 119-34.
Presley, C. A. (1993). Alcohal and Drugs on american college campuses. Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment, 1, 1989-91.
Quinn, R. E., & Rohrbaugh, J. (1983). A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: Towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. Management Science, 29, 363-377.
Rahim, D. M. -U. (2012). Service quality, student satisfaction and branding for business schools. AIMA Journal of Management & Research, 6(4/4).
Roberts-Lombard, M. (2009). Customer retention strategies implemented by fast-food outlets in the Gauteng, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces of South Africa: A Focus on Something Fishy, Nando’s and Steers. African Journal of Marketing Management, 1, 70-80.
Salami, S. O. (2005). Discriminant analysis of academic abilities and work values of career choice of  high school adolescents in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Personality Study and Group Behaviour, 25, 49-73.
Schreiber, J. B., Stage, F. K., King, J. N., A., & Barlow, E. A. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of Education Research, 99, 323-338.
Sevier, R. A. (1994). Image is everything: Strategies for measuring, changing, and maintaining your institution's image. College and University, 69, 60-75.
Shah, F. T. (2013). Service quality and service satisfaction. Journal of Quality and Technology Management, IX (II), 73-89.
Sporn, B. (1996). Managing university culture: An analysis of the relationship between institutional culture and management approaches. Higher Education, 32, 41-61.
Suter, W. N. (2006). Introduction to educational research: A critical thinking approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sweeney, J., & Soutar, G. (2001). Consumer perceived value: The development of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77, 203-20.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Tian, R. G., & Wang, C. H. (2010). Cross cultural customer satisfaction at a Chinese restaurant: The implications to China foodservice marketing. The International Journal of China Marketing, 1, 62-72.
Tinklin, T., Riddell, S., & Wilson, A. (2004). Policy and provision for disabled students in higher education in Scotland and England: The current state of play. Studies in Higher Education, 29, 637-657.
Tuan, N. M. (2012). Effects of service quality and price fairness on student Satisfaction. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(19), 132-150.
Uprety, R., & Chhetri, S. B. (2014). College culture and student satisfaction. Journal of Education and Research, 4(1), 77-92
Weirs-Jenssen, J., Stensaker, B., & Grogaard, J. (2002). Student satisfaction: Towards an empirical deconstruction of the concept. Quality in Higher Education, 8, 183-96.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Applied social research methods series. Thousand Oaks, London, New York: Sage.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52, 2-22.
Zeithaml, V. A., & Bitner, M. J. (2000). Service marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw- Hill.
Zeithaml, V. A., & Bitner, M. J. (1996). Services marketing (1st ed.). New York: McGraw- Hill.
Zindi, F. (1994). Sexual harassment in Zimbabwe’s institutions of higher education. Zambezia, 21, 177-185.