Investigating the Relationship between Player Types and Learning Styles in Gamification Design

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Industrial and Financial Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

An educational gamification is a new approach that has developed hopes to increase the effectiveness of learning. Computer game users are actually players that are categorized according to their personalities and have different learning styles. To achieve maximum performance in designing gamified learning, one can determine the relationship between player types and their learning styles, and then use this relationship to design better gamification in the field of education. In this research, the relationship between types of players based on Hexad scale model and the dimensions of Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM) have been investigated. To this end, the research data were collected from 121 university students. After analyzing the results of the crosstab and Pearson’s Chi-square test, five hypotheses were approved from ten developed hypotheses, which could be used to guide the more effective design of gamification elements.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی ارتباط میان نوع بازیگر و سبک‌های یادگیری در طراحی بازی‌پردازی (گیمیفیکیشن)

Authors [Persian]

  • زهرا عبدالله زاده
  • سید محمدباقر جعفری
گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، پردیس فارابی، دانشگاه تهران، قم ، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

بازی­پردازی آموزشی و آموزش بازی­وار، رویکرد جدیدی است که باعث تحول گسترده­ای در حوزه آموزش شده و امید اثر­بخشی یادگیری را افزایش داده­است  .کاربران بازی­های رایانه­ای در واقع بازیگرانی هستند که بر اساس ویژگی­هایشان به انواع مختلف تقسیم­بندی می­شوند. از طرف دیگر این بازیگران دارای سبک­های یادگیری متفاوتی هستند. برای رسیدن به کارایی حداکثری در طراحی یادگیری بازی­وار، می­توان ارتباط بین نوع بازیگری فرد و سبک یادگیری او را تعیین و سپس از این ارتباط در طراحی مکانیک­های بازی­پردازی (گیمیفیکیشن) در حوزه آموزش استفاده کرد. در این پژوهش، ارتباط میان نوع بازیگر بر اساس مدل هگزاد اسکیل و ابعاد مدل سبک یادگیری فلدر و سیلورمن بررسی شده­است. به این منظور داده­های تحقیق از 121 نفر از دانشجویان دانشگاه­های استان قم جمع­آوری شد. پس از تحلیل نتایج با استفاده از جدول توافقی و آزمون کای­اسکوئر پیرسون، پنج فرضیه از ده فرض توسعه­داده­شده تایید گشت و ارتباط میان برخی ابعاد سبک یادگیری و نوع بازیگر مورد پذیرش قرار گرفت که می­تواند راهنمای طراحی اثربخش­تر مکانیک­های بازی­پردازی باشد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • سبک یادگیری فلدر و سیلورمن
  • نوع بازیگر هگزاد اسکیل
  • بازی‌پردازی
  • آموزش بازی‌وار
  1. Al-jaberi, N. M. (2015). University students' learning styles and their ability to solve mathematical problems. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6(4).
  2. Bartle, R. (1996). Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: Players who suit MUDs. Journal of MUD Research, 1, 1-19.
  3. Bernard, J., Chang, T. W., Popescu, E., & Graf, S. (2017). Learning style identifier: Improving the precision of learning style identification through computational intelligence algorithms. Expert Systems with Applications75, 94-108.
  4. Böckle, M., Novak, J., & Bick, M. (2017). Towards adaptive gamification: A Synthesis of current developments. Proceedings from the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Guimarães, Portugal.
  5. Bunchball, I. (2010). Gamification 101: An introduction to the use of game dynamics to influence behavior. White Paper, 9.
  6. Deborah, L. J., Baskaran, R., & Kannan, A. (2014). Learning styles assessment and theoretical origin in an e-learning scenario: A survey. Artificial Intelligence Review42(4), 801-819.
  7. Dichev, C., & Dicheva, D. (2017). Gamifying education: What is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: A critical review. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education14(1), 9.
  8. Engedal, J. Ø. (2016). Gamification: A study of motivational affordances. Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Gjøvik University College.
  9. Felder, R. M., & Silverman, L. K. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-681.      
  10. Felder, R. M., & Soloman, B. A. (2000). Learning styles and strategies. Retrieved 19 October 2017 from http://www.engr.ncsu. edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html.
  11. Ferro, L. S., Walz, S. P., & Greuter, S. (2013, September). Towards personalised, gamified systems: An investigation into game design, personality and player typologies. Proceedings from the 9th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Matters of Life and Death, (p. 7), ACM.
  12. Gil, B., Cantador, I., & Marczewski, A. (2015). Validating gamification mechanics and player types in an e-learning environment. Design for Teaching and Learning in a Networked World, 568-572. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24258-3_61
  13. Gil Pérez, B. (2015). Applying gamification to education: A case study in an e-learning environment (Master’s thesis).
  14. Gregorc, A. F. (1979). Learning/teaching styles: Their nature and effects. Student learning styles: diagnosing and prescribing programs. National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.
  15. Grünewald, F., Meinel, C., Totschnig, M., & Willems, C. (2013, September). Designing MOOCs for the support of multiple learning styles. European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 371-382), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  16. Huang, W. H. Y., & Soman, D. (2013). Gamification of education: Research Report Series: Behavioural Economics in Action. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    1. Huang, E. Y., Lin, S. W., & Huang, T. K. (2012). What type of learning style leads to online participation in the mixed-mode e-learning environment? A study of software usage instruction. Computers & Education58(1), 338-349.
  17. Jackson, M. (2016). Gamification in education: A literature review. West Point, NY: United States Military Academy.
  18. Khenissi, M. A., Essalmi, F., & Jemni, M. (2013, March). Toward the personalization of learning games according to learning styles. Proceedings from International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Software Applications (ICEESA) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.      
  19. Khenissi, M. A., Essalmi, F., Jemni, M., Graf, S., & Chen, N. S. (2016). Relationship between learning styles and genres of games. Computers & Education101, 1-14.
  20. Kiryakova, G., Angelova, N., & Yordanova, L. (2014). Gamification in education. Proceedings from 9th International Balkan Education and Science Conference.
  21. Konert, J., Göbel, S., & Steinmetz, R. (2013, January). Modeling the player, learner and personality: Independency of the models of Bartle, Kolb and NEO-FFI (Big5) and the implications for game based learning. Proceedings from European Conference on Games Based Learning (p. 329), Academic Conferences International Limited.
  22. Marczewski, A. (2015). Marczewski’s user type test.  Gamified UK.           
  23. Marczewski, A. C. (2015). Even Ninja monkeys like to play: Gamification, game thinking and motivational design. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  24. Monterrat, B., Desmarais, M., Lavoué, E., & George, S. (2015, June). A player model for adaptive gamification in learning environments. Proceedings from International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 297-306), Springer, Cham.
  25. Monterrat, B., Lavoué, É., & George, S. (2014, September). A framework to adapt gamification in learning environments. Proceedings from European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 578-579), Springer, Cham.
  26. Nacke, L. E., Bateman, C., & Mandryk, R. L. (2014). BrainHex: A neurobiological gamer typology survey. Entertainment Computing5(1), 55-62.
  27. Orji, R., Nacke, L. E., & Di Marco, C. (2017, May). Towards personality-driven persuasive health games and gamified systems. Proceedings from the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1015-1027), ACM.
  28. Rapeepisarn, K., Wong, K. W., Fung, C. C., & Khine, M. S. (2008, June). The relationship between game genres, learning techniques and learning styles in educational computer games. Proceedings from International Conference on Technologies for E-Learning and Digital Entertainment (pp. 497-508), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  29. Roshandel, M. (2017). Shabestan News Agency.  Retrieved on August, 23, 2017, from http://www.shabestan.ir/detail/News/564615. (Persian)
  30. Ruhi, U. (2015). Level up your strategy: Towards a descriptive framework for meaningful enterprise gamification. Technology Innovation Management Review. Retrieved on 25 August 2015 from https://ssrn.com/abstract= 2695848.
  31. Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons. Soloman, B. A., & Felder, R. M. (1999). Index of learning styles questionnaire. Accessed on March 26, 2003.    
  32. Tuckman, B. W. (1999). Conducting educational research (5th ed.). Wadsworth Group.
  33. Tondello, G. F., Wehbe, R. R., Diamond, L., Busch, M., Marczewski, A., & Nacke, L. E. (2016, October). The gamification user types Hexad scale. Proceedings from the 2016 annual symposium on computer-human interaction in play (pp. 229-243), ACM.
  34. Tondello, G. F., Orji, R., & Nacke, L. E. (2017, July). Recommender systems for personalized gamification. Adjunct Publication of the 25th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization (pp. 425-430), ACM.
  35. Tuunanen, J., & Hamari, J. (2012). Meta-synthesis of player typologies. Proceedings from Nordic Digra 2012 Conference: Games in Culture and Society, Tampere, Finland.          
  36. Yee, N. (2006). Motivations for play in online games. Cyber Psychology & behavior, 9(6), 772-775.         
  37. Zichermann, G., & Cunningham, C. (2011). Gamification by design: Implementing game mechanics in web and mobile apps. O’Reilly Media, Inc.