An Entrepreneurial Decision-Making Model: A Case Study of‏ ‏the ‎Electronic Business of Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Management and Accounting Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of Business, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


E-businesses play a critical role in today's knowledge-based economies. Despite their ‎increasing portion, e-businesses experience high rates of failure. Therefore, it is of prime ‎importance to identify their decision-making activities encountering outer competitive forces ‎and their internal structural events. In this study, through using the Grounded Theory approach, we ‎analyze interviews conducted by 20 entrepreneurs who have started and run e-businesses, based on ‎an ex-post facto view. We identified preconditions to entrepreneurial decisions to actualize in ‎three steps and their respective sub-activities that are taken during this decision. Decision-‎making strategies together with contextual and intervening factors that affect the adoption of the ‎mentioned strategies and decision making itself are also identified. Finally, probable outcomes ‎of entrepreneurial decisions are identified and reflected in emerged theory.‎


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

ارایه مدل تصمیم گیری کارآفرینانه در ایجاد کسب و کار‎:‎‏ مورد مطالعه، کسب و ‏کارهای الکترونیکی شهر تهران

Authors [Persian]

  • گلشن محمدی 1
  • سید مجتبی سجادی 2
  • کمال سخدری 2
1 دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قزوین، قزوین، ایران
2 گروه کارآفرینی، دانشکده کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

سهم کسب و کارهای الکترونیکی در توسعه اقتصادهای دانش بنیان امروزی بسیار زیاد و بی بدیل است. با این وجود، به رغم رشد بالای این سهم، کسب و کارهای ‏الکترونیکی نرخ های بالایی از شکست را تجربه می نمایند. از این رو شناسایی رویدادهای تصمیم گیری این کسب و کارها در مواجهه با نیروهای رقابتی بیرونی و تغییرات ‏ساختار درونی آنان، گام مهمی در بهبود فعالیت های آنان می باشد. در مطالعه حاضر، با بررسی 20 کارآفرین فعال در زمینه کسب و کارهای الکترونیکی، با اتخاذ رویکرد ‏نظریه داده بنیاد، رویدادهای تصمیم گیری آنان با نگاهی پس رویدادی مورد شناسایی قرار گرفته است. مطالعه حاضر منتج به شناسایی شرایط ضروری برای تصمیم ‏کارآفرینانه به ایجاد کسب و کار الکترونیکی و همین طور مراحل و رویدادهای موجود در هر یک از مراحل تصمیم به ایجاد کسب و کار کارآفرینانه گردیده است. ‏راهبردهای تصمیم گیری، زمینه موثر بر تصمیم گیری و راهبردها و همین طور نتایج محتمل از تصمیم به ایجاد کارآفرینانه نیز در شمار یافته های مطالعه حاضر می باشند.‏

Keywords [Persian]

  • مدل تصمیم گیری
  • تصمیمم کارآفرینانه
  • ایجاد کسب و کار
  • کسب و کار الکترونیکی‎ ‎
Alon, I., Deng, S., & Wang, X. (2010). Framework for female entrepreneurship in China. International Journal of ‎Business and Emerging Markets, 3(1), 3-20‎‏. ‏
Babchuk, W.A. (1997) Glaser or Strauss?: Grounded theory and adult education. Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, October 15-17.‏
Basci, E. (2016). A critical look at “marketing, consumption, and society” by anti-consumerists: A qualitative and ‎interdisciplinary model of anti-consumerism. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 8(5), 15.‏
Baskerville, R., & Pries-Heje, J. (1999). Grounded action research: A method for understanding IT in practice. ‎Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 9(1), 1-23.‏
Baum, J. R., Olian, J. D., Erez, M., Schnell, E. R., Smith, K. G., Sims, H. P., & Smith, K. A. (1993). Nationality and work ‎role interactions: A cultural contrast of Israeli and US entrepreneurs' versus managers' needs. Journal of Business ‎Venturing, 8(6), 499-512‎‏. ‏
Böhm, A. (2004). Theoretical coding: Text analysis in grounded theory. In Flick, U., von Kardoff, E. and Steinke, I. (edit.): A Companion to Qualitative Research. Sage Publications Ltd, 270 -275.
Brown, J. W., Chen, S. l., Mitchell, C., & Province, A. (2007). Help-seeking by older husbands caring for wives with‏ ‏dementia. Journal of advanced nursing, 59(4), 352-360.‏
Bucar, B., & Hisrich, R. D. (2001). Ethics of business managers vs. entrepreneurs. Journal of developmental ‎entrepreneurship, 6(1), 59.‏
Campbell, C. A. (1992). A decision theory model for entrepreneurial acts. Entrepreneurship: Theory and practice, 17(1), ‎‎21-28.‏
Carr, J.C. & Blettner, D.P. (2010). Cognitive control bias and decision-making in context: Implications for entrepreneurial founders of small firms. Frontier of Entrepreneurship Research, 30(6), 1-15.‏
Cha, M. S., & Bae, Z. T. (2010). The entrepreneurial journey: From entrepreneurial intent to opportunity realization. ‎The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 21(1), 31-42.‏
Chih, W.-H., Huang, L.-C., & Yang, T.-J. (2016). Prior knowledge, transformative learning and performance. Industrial ‎Management & Data Systems, 116(1), 103-121‎‏. ‏
Edwards-Joseph, A., & Baker, S. (2014). Factors Caribbean overseas students perceive influencing their academic self-‎efficacy. Journal of International Students, 4(1), 48-59.‏
Ellis, T. J., & Levy, Y. (2009). Towards a guide for novice researchers on research methodology: Review and proposed ‎methods. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 6, 323-337.‏
Evers, N., & O’Gorman, C‏. (2011). ‏Improvised internationalization in new ventures: The role of prior knowledge and ‎networks. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 23(7-8), 549-574.‏
Fatai, O. I. A., Faqih, A., & Bustan, W. K. (2014). Children's active learning through unstructured play‏ ‏in Malaysia. ‎Childhood Education, 90(4), 259-264.‏
Forlani, D., & Mullins, J. W. (2000). Perceived risks and choices in entrepreneurs' new venture decisions. Journal of ‎Business Venturing, 15(4), 305-322.‏
Geessinck, B. (2014). Exploring entrepreneurial strategic decision making and imagination.‏ Dissertation, University of Twente.
Gibcus, P., & Van Hoesel, P. (2008). Strategic decision-making processes in SMEs: An exploratory study. ‎Entrepreneurial Strategic Decision-making: A cognitive perspective, Edward Elgar, 89-104.‏
Gibcus, P., Vermeulen, P. A. &, ‏Radulova, E. (2008). The decision-making entrepreneur: A literature review. ‎Entrepreneurial strategic decision-making: A cognitive perspective, Edward Elgar, 11-40.‏
Hatamy, R., Imanipour, N., & Zarei Gorgabad, B. (2015). The role of real option in e-business risk management: The ‎case of E-treasury project. International Journal of Information, Security and Systems Management, 4(1), 364-‎‎372‎‏. ‏
Holmin, J. (2013). Decision making concerning operational processes: A hotel perspective. Dissertation, Lulea University of Technology‏.‏
Huerta, E. (2006). A small virtual organization serving the Mexican market. International Journal of Cases on Electronic Commerce (IJCEC), 2(2), 64-80.
Ivanova, E., & Gibcus, P. (2003). The decision-making entrepreneur:  Literature review, SCALES-paper N200219, EIM Business & Policy Research. ‏
Justus, A. H., Jooste, K., & Nangombe, J. P. (2016). Description of a model to facilitate male involvement in the ‎reproductive health context by the registered nurses. International Journal of Advanced Nursing Studies, 5(1), 1-19‎‏. ‏
Kalinic, I., Sarasvathy, S., Forza, C. (2012). Internationalization and effectuation: Explaining entrepreneurial decision-making in uncertain international environments, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the European International Business Academy (EIBA), Sussex. ‏
Lindblom, A., Olkkonen, R., Kajalo, S., & Mitronen, L. (2008). Market-sensing capability and business‏ ‏performance of ‎retail entrepreneurs. Contemporary Management Research, 4(3), 219-236.‏
Maine, E., Soh, P. H., & Dos Santos, N. (2012). Decision-making processes in biotech commercialization: Constraints to effectuation. Technology Management for Emerging Technologies (PICMET), 2012 Proceedings of PICMET'12. IEEE, 611-616.
Maine, E., Soh, P. H., & Dos Santos, N. (2015). The role of entrepreneurial decision-making in opportunity creation ‎and recognition. Technovation, 39, 53-72‎‏. ‏
Mole, K. F., & Mole, M. (2010). ‏Entrepreneurship as the structuration of individual and opportunity: A response using ‎a critical realist perspective: Comment on Sarason, Dean and Dillard. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), 230-‎‎237.‏
Moss, S., Prosser, H., Costello, H., Simpson‏, ‏N., Patel, P., Rowe, S., & Hatton, C. (1998). Reliability and validity of the ‎PAS-ADD checklist for detecting psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual ‎Disability Research, 42(2), 173-183.‏
Murray, J. Y.‏ & ‏Fu, F. Q. (2016). Strategic guanxi orientation: How to manage distribution channels in China? Journal ‎of International Management, 22(1), 1-16.‏
Onstenk, J. (2003). Entrepreneurship and vocational education. European educational research journal, 2(1), 74-89.‏
Paranjpe, A. (2016). Librarianship in 21st Century: Need of soft skills. Chief Patron’s Message for Multicon-2016, 114.‏
Pech, R. J., & Cameron, A. (2006). An entrepreneurial decision process model describing opportunity recognition. ‎European Journal of Innovation Management, 9(1), 61-78.‏
Penrose, E.T. (1959). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, John Wiley, New York, NY. Peppard, J. and Rylander, A. (2001), “Using an IC perspective to design and implement a growth strategy: The case of ApiON”, European Management Journal, 19, 510-25.
Reymen, I., Berends, H., Oudehand, R., & Stultiëns, R. (2017). Decision making for business model development: A process study of effectuation and causation in new technology-based ventures. R&D Management, 47(4), 595-606.
Santos, S. C., Caetano, A., Baron, R., & Curral, L. (2015). Prototype models of opportunity recognition and the decision ‎to launch a new venture: Identifying the basic dimensions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & ‎Research, 21(4), 510-538.‏
Sarason, Y., Dean, T., & Dillard, J. F. (2006). Entrepreneurship as the nexus of individual and opportunity: A ‎structuration view. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(3), 286-305.‏
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to ‎entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 243-263.‏
Sayadevi, C. (2006). Quantitative Techniques. New Delhi: Schand & Company Ltd.
Shepherd, D. A., Williams, T. A., & Patzelt, H. (2015). Thinking about entrepreneurial decision making: Review and research agenda. Journal of management, 41(1), 11-46.
Simon, H. A. (1960). The Ford distinguished lectures: Vol. 3. The new science of management decision. New York, NY, US: Harper & Brothers. ‏
Stevens, R. E., Loudon, D. L., Ruddick, M. E., Sherwood, P. K., & Wrenn, B. (2012). The marketing research guide. Routledge.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1994). Grounded theory methodology. Handbook of qualitative research, 273-285.‏
Torikka, J. (2013). Entrepreneurial Processes of the Finnish Franchisee Training Program’s Graduates Network ‎Governance (pp. 287-312): Springer‎‏.‏
Tsang, E. W. (2004). Toward a scientific inquiry into superstitious business decision‏-‏making. Organization Studies, ‎‎25 (6), 923-946.‏
Wei, X., & Hisrich, R. D. (2016). Error orientation and entrepreneurial decision making in Chinese enterprises: ‎Opportunity identification as mediator. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 44(4), 555-568.‏
Zhao, J., Zhu, Z., & Gu, W. (2007). An empirical evaluation of the   effectiveness of e-business strategic planning. Paper ‎presented at the 2007 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing‏., IEEE.