A Competency-based Typology of Technology Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Studies

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Due to the importance of technology entrepreneurs’ competencies in the creation and development of technological businesses, a distinct stream of research has been dedicated to this subject. However, given the nature of suchlike studies, it is difficult to reach a common understanding of the competencies. In fact, there is a need to provide some systematization to achieve advancements in the field. A review of 87 articles indexed on Scopus about technology entrepreneurs indicates that competencies of technology entrepreneurs can be classified under three groups of technological competencies, entrepreneurial competencies, and managerial competencies. This classification is used for two purposes, namely to categorize the technology entrepreneurs based on their competencies and to recommend new venues of research to study technology entrepreneurs. This paper can help technology entrepreneurs develop their competencies. It will also be useful in identifying entrepreneurs, and in training and developing the competency of academic entrepreneurs, technology incubators, and accelerators.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [Persian]

یک سنخ‏ شناسی از کارآفرینان فناوری مبتنی بر شایستگی ها بوسیله مرور نظام ‏مند ادبیات

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد صادق برادران
  • جهانگیر یدالهی فارسی
  • سیدرضا حجازی
  • مرتضی اکبری
دانشکده کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

نقش کسب‏وکارهای جدید فناورانه در توسعه اقتصادی و تحولات اجتماعی غیرقابل‏انکار است. قلب این کسب‏وکارها، کارآفرینان فناوری هستند و بر این اساس، یکی از حوزه‏های پژوهشی اصلی در قلمروی کارآفرینی فناوری را به خود اختصاص داده‏اند. در این پژوهش با اتخاذ رویکرد در حال توسعه شایستگی مبنا در مطالعه کارآفرینان، به مرور و تحلیل ادبیات مرتبط با کارآفرینان فناوری اقدام شده است تا ضمن ارائه تصویری از شایستگی‏های ایشان در ادبیات، مسیرهایی برای پژوهشهای آتی فراهم شود. در این راستا، ضمن مرور سیستماتیک مقالات مرتبط با کارآفرینان فناوری، تحلیل محتوای کیفی 87 مقاله آکادمیک نمایه‏ دار در پایگاه اسکوپوس صورت گرفته است. در راستای اهداف این پژوهش، از این دو استفاده صورت گرفته است. اولا دسته‌بندی کارآفرینان فناوری بر اساس شایستگی‌ها که کاربردهای مختلفی در آموزش، سیاست‌گذاری، سرمایه‎‌گذاری و پشتیبانی دارد. ثانیا پیشنهاد مسیرهای پژوهشی جدید مطالعه کارآفرینان فناوری که در دو بخش موضوع و متدولوژی بحث شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • کارآفرین فناوری
  • استارتاپ
  • مرور نظام مند
  • رویکرد شایستگی
  • سنخ شناسی
Agogué, M., Lundqvist, M., & Middleton, K. W. (2015). Mindful Deviation through Combining Causation and Effectuation: A Design Theory-Based Study of Technology Entrepreneurship. Creativity and Innovation Management, 24(4), 629-644.
Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2007). Discovery and creation: Alternative theories of entrepreneurial action. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1‐2), 11-26.
Aoyama, Y. (2009). Entrepreneurship and regional culture: The case of Hamamatsu and Kyoto, Japan. Regional Studies, 43(3), 495-512.
Armstrong, P., & Tomes, A. (2000). Entrepreneurship in Science: Case studies from liquid crystal application. Prometheus (United Kingdom), 18(2), 133-147.
Bailetti, T. (2012). Technology entrepreneurship: overview, definition, and distinctive aspects. Technology Innovation Management Review, 2(2), 5.
Beckman, C. M., Eisenhardt, K., Kotha, S., Meyer, A., & Rajagopalan, N. (2012). The Role of the Entrepreneur in Technology Entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 6(3), 203-206.
Berry, M. M. J. (1996). Technical entrepreneurship, strategic awareness and corporate transformation in small high-tech firms. Technovation, 16(9), 487-498.
Bird, B. (1995). Towards a theory of entrepreneurial competency. Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth, 2(1), 51-72.
Blanco, S., & Therin, F. (2007). How techno-entrepreneurs build a potentially exciting future. Handbook of Research on Techno-Entrepreneurship, 1, 3-25.
Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent manager: A model for effective performance, New york: John Wiley & Sons.
Brinckmann, J. (2008). Competence of top management teams and success of new technology-based firms, Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Buang, N. A., Halim, L., & Mohd Meerah, T. S. (2009). Understanding the thinking of scientists entrepreneurs: Implications for science education in Malaysia. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 6(2), 3-11.
Carrier, C., Raymond, L., & Eltaief, A. (2004). Cyberentrepreneurship:A multiple case study. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 10(5), 349-363.
Christensen, J. F., Olesen, M. H., & Kjær, J. S. (2005). The industrial dynamics of Open Innovation - Evidence from the transformation of consumer electronics. Research policy, 34(10), 1533-1549.
Clarke, T. E., & Reavley, J. (1981). Educating technical entrepreneurs and innovators for the 1980's. Technovation, 1(2), 125-134.
Colombo, M. G., & Grilli, L. (2005). Founders' human capital and the growth of new technology-based firms: A competence-based view. Research policy, 34(6), 795-816.
Crossan, M. M., & Apaydin, M. (2010). A multi‐dimensional framework of organizational innovation: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 1154-1191.
Davidsson, P. (2015). Entrepreneurial opportunities and the entrepreneurship nexus: A re-conceptualization. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(5), 674-695.
Denyer, D., & Tranfield, D. (2009). Producing a systematic review. In D. A. Buchanan (Ed.), The Sage handbook of organizational research methods (pp. 671-689). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
Elston, J. A., & Audretsch, D. B. (2011). Financing the entrepreneurial decision: An empirical approach using experimental data on risk attitudes. Small Business Economics, 36(2), 209-222.
Ezzedeen, S. R., & zikic, J. (2012). Entrepreneurial experiences of women in Canadian high technology. International Journal of Gender and
A Competency-based Typology of Technology Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Review … 35
Entrepreneurship, 4(1), 44-64.
Ferreira, J. J., Ferreira, F. A., Fernandes, C. I., Jalali, M. S., Raposo, M. L., & Marques, C. S. (2016). What do we [not] know about technology entrepreneurship research? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(3), 713-733.
Gast, J., Gundolf, K., & Cesinger, B. (2017). Doing business in a green way: A systematic review of the ecological sustainability entrepreneurship literature and future research directions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147, 44-56.
Gemmell, R. M., Boland, R. J., & Kolb, D. A. (2012). The socio-cognitive dynamics of entrepreneurial ideation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(5), 1053-1073.
Hayton, J. C., & McEvoy, G. M. (2006). Guest editors' note. Human Resource Management, 45(3), 291-294.
Jones-Evans, D. (1995). A typology of technology-based entrepreneurs a model based on previous occupational background. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 1(1), 26-47.
Julien, H. (2008 ). Conent analysis. In L. M. Given (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (Vol. 1, pp. 120-121). Thousand Oaks, California 91320: SAGE.
Kassicieh, S. (2011). Benefits from using surrogate entrepreneurs in technology commercialization. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 8(4), 521-534.
Liao, J., & Welsch, H. (2008). Patterns of venture gestation process: Exploring the differences between tech and non-tech nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 19(2), 103-113.
Liñán, F., & Fayolle, A. (2015). A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 907-933.
Lindholm Dahlstrand, Å. (2007). Technology-based entrepreneurship and regional development: the case of Sweden. European Business Review, 19(5), 373-386.
Maine, E., Soh, P. H., & Dos Santos, N. (2015). The role of entrepreneurial decision-making in opportunity creation and recognition. Technovation, 39-40(1), 53-72.
Man, T. W., Lau, T., & Chan, K. (2002). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(2), 123-142.
Marlow, S., & McAdam, M. (2015). Incubation or Induction? Gendered Identity Work in the Context of Technology Business Incubation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 39(4), 791-816.
Marvel, M. R. (2012). Knowledge Acquisition Asymmetries and Innovation Radicalness. Journal of Small Business Management, 50(3), 447-468.
Marvel, M. R., & Droege, S. (2010). Prior tacit knowledge and first-year sales: Learning from technology entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(1), 32-44.
Marvel, M. R., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2007). Technology entrepreneurs' human capital and its effects on innovation radicalness. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(6), 807-828.
McHenry, J. (2008). The role and management of learning from experience in an entrepreneurial context. In Entrepreneurial Learning: Conceptual Frameworks and Applications (pp. 94-114), London: Routledge.
Möllers, N. (2016). Shifting in and out of context: Technoscientific drama as technology of the self. Social Studies of Science, 46(3), 351-373.
Morov, A. V. (2016). Psychological basis of technological leadership: Tools and environment of development of personal qualities of future it entrepreneurs.
36 (IJMS) Vol. 12, No. 2, Spring2019
International Business Management, 10(7), 1365-1369.
Morris, M. H., Webb, J. W., Fu, J., & Singhal, S. (2013). A competency‐based perspective on entrepreneurship education: conceptual and empirical insights. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 352-369.
Myers, D. D. (1984). Technological innovation and entrepreneurship from the human side. Engineering Management International, 2(4), 229-234.
Oakey, R. P. (2003). Technical entreprenenurship in high technology small firms: Some observations on the implications for management. Technovation, 23(8), 679-688.
Pathak, S., Laplume, A. O., & Xavier-Oliveira, E. (2014). Opportunity recognition, intellectual property rights, barriers to technological adoption and technology entrepreneurship in emerging economies: A multilevel analysis. International Journal of Economics and Business Research, 7(2), 130-158.
Phan, P. H., & Der Foo, M. (2004). Technological entrepreneurship in emerging regions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), 1-5.
Phillips, W., Lee, H., Ghobadian, A., O’Regan, N., & James, P. (2015). Social innovation and social entrepreneurship: A systematic review. Group & Organization Management, 40(3), 428-461.
Proksch, D., Stranz, W., & Pinkwart, A. (2018). German entrepreneurs in the high-tech field: identifying different profiles. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 33(1), 52-71.
Roberts, E. B. (1989). The personality and motivations of technological entrepreneurs. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 6(1), 5-23.
Rojas, F., & Huergo, E. (2016). Characteristics of entrepreneurs and public support for NTBFs. Small Business Economics, 47(2), 363-382.
Sanchez, A. M., & Perez, O. U. (1998). Entrepreneurship networks and high technology firms: The case of Aragon. Technovation, 18(5), 335-345.
Sánchez, J. C. (2013). The impact of an entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurial competencies and intention. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 447-465.
Sarasvathy, S. D., Dew, N., Velamuri, S. R., & Venkataraman, S. (2003). Three views of entrepreneurial opportunity Handbook of entrepreneurship research (pp. 141-160), Boston, MA: Springer.
Schrage, H. (1965). The r and d entrepreneur-profile of success. Harvard Business Review, 43(6), 56-69.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2003). Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue on technology entrepreneurship. Research policy, 32(2), 181-184.
Shinn, T., & Lamy, E. (2006). Paths of commercial knowledge: Forms and consequences of university-enterprise synergy in scientist-sponsored firms. Research policy, 35(10), 1465-1476.
Sullivan, D. M., & Marvel, M. R. (2011). Knowledge Acquisition, Network Reliance, and Early-Stage Technology Venture Outcomes. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1169-1193.
Tajeddini, K., & Mueller, S. L. (2009). Entrepreneurial characteristics in Switzerland and the UK: A comparative study of techno-entrepreneurs. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 7(1), 1-25.
Tajeddini, K., & Mueller, S. L. (2012). Corporate entrepreneurship in Switzerland: evidence from a case study of Swiss watch manufacturers. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 8(3), 355-372.
Timmons, J. A., & Bygrave, W. D. (1986). Venture capital's role in financing innovation for economic growth. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(2), 161-176.
Wainer, H. A., & Rubin, I. M. (1969). Motivation of research and development entrepreneurs: Determinants of company success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53(3 PART 1).
A Competency-based Typology of Technology Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Review … 37
Watkins, D. S. (1971). Encouraging the technical entrepreneur. R&D Management, 1(3), 155-158.
Wright, M., Hmieleski, K. M., Siegel, D. S., & Ensley, M. D. (2007). The role of human capital in technological entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(6), 791-806.
Yang, J., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., & Niu, F. (2015). Escalation bias among technology entrepreneurs: the moderating effects of motivation and mental budgeting. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 27(6), 693-708.
Yitshaki, R., & Kropp, F. (2016). Entrepreneurial passions and identities in different contexts: a comparison between high-tech and social entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 28(3-4), 206-233.
Zhang, J., & Wong, P. K. (2008). Networks vs. market methods in high-tech venture fundraising: The impact of institutional environment. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 20(5), 409-430.
Zhang, Y. (2004). Constructing a conducive environment for the growth of knowledge-based SMEs in a science park context: a study on the demand-side perceptions in Malaysia. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 4(5), 515-528.
Zikic, J., & Ezzedeen, S. (2015). Towards a more integrated view of entrepreneurial careers Qualitative investigation of the three forms of career capital and their relationships among high tech entrepreneurs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 21(6), 756-777.