A Two-Phase Simulation-Based Optimization of Hauling System in Open-Pit Mine

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

2 Department of Mathematics, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran


One of the key issues in mining is the hauling system. Truck and shovels are the most widely used transportation equipment in mines. In this paper, a two-phase simulation-based optimization is presented to maximize utilization of hauling system in the largest Iranian open-pit copper mine. In the first phase, The OptQuest for Arena software package was used to solve the optimization problem to provide an optimal production quantity. In the second phase, the haulage system problem in the open-pit was modeled by bi-objective optimization programing by means of meta-modeling approach. Meta-modeling approach could estimate the exact total production quantities, and solved the problem by determining the optimal value of shovels using the design of experiments. The efficient solution of the bi-objective problem was obtained using -constraint method. The results of the proposed approach were compared with the current situation, where the total production had increased by 21% (equivalent to 10K tons) through the proposed approach. Therefore, calculations in this mine show that how the proposed framework can improve the production and productivity of haulage system.


Main Subjects

Abolghasemian, M., Eskandari, H. R., & Darabi, H. (2018). Simulation based optimization of haulage system of an open-pit mine: Meta modeling approach. Organizational Resources Management Researchs, 8(2), 1-17.
Afrapoli, A. M., & Askari-Nasab, H. (2019). Mining fleet management systems: A review of models and algorithms. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 33(1), 42-60.
Akhtari, S., & Sowlati, T. (2020). Hybrid optimization-simulation for integrated planning of bioenergy and biofuel supply chains. Applied Energy, 256, 114-124.
Alarie, S., & Gamache, M. (2002). Overview of solution strategies used in truck dispatching systems for open pit mines. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 16(1), 59-76.
Amaran, S., Sahinidis, N., Sharda, B., & Bury, S. J. (2015). Simulation optimization: A review of algorithm and applications. Annals of Operations Research, 240, 351, 380.
Barnes, R. J., King, M. S., & Johnson, T. B. (1979). Probability techniques for analyzing open pit production systems. Paper presented at unknown conference, Tucson, AZ, USA.
Barton, R. R. (2009). Simulation optimization using metamodels. M. D., Rosseti, R. R., Hill, B., Johanson, A., Dunkin and R. G., Ingalls. Eds., Proceedings of the 41th Conference on Winter Simulation[H1] [A2] , 230-239. Austin, TX, USA: IEEE.
Barton, R. R., & Meckesheimer, M. (2006). Meta-model-based simulation optimization. Operation Research and Management Science, 13(1)[H3] , 535-574.
Chugh, T., Sindhya, K., Hsksnen, J., & Miettinen, K. (2019). A survey on handling computationally expensive multi objective optimization problems with evolutionary algorithm. Soft Coumputing, 23(9), 3137-3166.
Curry, J. A., Ismay, M. J., & Jameson, G. J. (2014). Mine operating costs and the potential impacts of energy and grinding. Minerals Engineering, 56[H4] (2), 70-80.
Dengiz, B., & Belgin, O. (2014). Simulation optimization of a multi-stage multi product paint shop line with response surface methodology. Simulation, 90(3), 265-274.
Dengiz, B., Bektas, T., & Ultanir, A. E. (2006). Simulation optimization based DSS application: A diamond tool production line in industry. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 14[H5] (3), 269-312.
Dengiz, B., Tansel, I., & Belgin, O. (2016). A meta-model based simulation optimization using hybrid simulation-analytical modeling to increase the productivity in an automotive industry. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 120(2)[H6] , 120-128.[H7] 
Eskandari, H. R., Darabi, H., & Hosseinzadeh, S. A. H. (2013). Simulation and optimization of haulage system of an open-pit mine. 13th Summer Computer Simulation Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Eskandari, H. R., Mahmoodi, E., Fallah, H., & Geiger, C. D. (2011). Performance analysis of commercial simulation-based optimization packages: OptQuest and witness optimizer. S. Jain., R. R. Creasey., J. Himelspach., K. P. White and M. Fu. Eds., Proceedings of the 43th Conference on Winter Simulation, 2358-2368[H8] . Phoenix, AZ, USA: IEEE.
Fu, M. C. (2002). Optimization for simulation: Theory vs. practice. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 14(3), 192-215.
Glover, F., Kelly, J. P., & Laguna, M. (1996). New advances and applications of combining simulation and optimization. J. M. Charnes., D. J. Morrice, D. T. Brunner and J. J. Swain. Eds., Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Winter Simulation, 144-152. Coronado, CA, USA: IEEE.
He, M., He, M. X., Wei, J. C., Lu, X. M., & Huang, B. X. (2010). The genetic algorithm for truck dispatching problems in surface mine. Information Technology Journal, 9(4), 710-714.
Himebaugh, A. (1980). Computer-based truck dispatching in the tyrone mine. Mining Congress Journal, 66(11), 16-21.
Hodson, D., & Barker, K. (1985). The design and development of a computerized truck dispatching system. Mining Conference, Birmingham, UK.
Jafferali, M., Venkateshwaran, J., & Son, Y. J. (2005). Performance comparison of search based simulation optimization algorithms for operations scheduling. International Journal of Simulation and Process Modelling, 1(2), 58-71.
Jerbi, A., Ammar, A., Krid, M., & Salah, B. (2019). Performance optimization of a flexible manufacturing system using simulation: The Taguchi method versus OptQuest. Simulation, 95(11), 1085-1096.
Kleijnen, J. P. C. (2016). Regression and Kriging meta models with their experimental design in simulation: A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 256(1), 1-16.
Kleijnen, J. P. C., & Sargent, R. (1997). A methodology for fitting and validating metamodels in simulation. Operation Research, 116, 1-36.
Kleijnen, J. P., & Standridge, C. R. (1988). Experimental design and regression analysis in simulation: An FMS case study. European Journal of Operational Research, 33(3), 257-261.
Koenigsberg, E. (1982). Twenty-five years of cyclic queues and closed queue networks: A review. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 33(7), 605-619.
Law, A. M. (2007). Simulation modeling and analysis (4th  ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Madu, C. N. (1990). Simulation in manufacturing: A regression metamodel approach. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 18(3), 381-389.
Mena, R., Zio, E., Kristjanpoller, F., & Arata, A. (2013). Availability-based simulation and optimization modeling framework for open-pit truck allocation under dynamic constraints. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 23(1), 113-119.
Moniri-Morad, A., Pourgol, M., Aghababaei, H., & Sattarvand, J. (2019). A methodology for truck allocation problems considering dynamic circumstances in open pit mines, case study of the sungun copper mine. The Mining-Geological-Petroleum Bulletin, 34(4), 57-65.
Nageshwaraniyer, S. S., Son, Y. J. & Dessureault, S. (2013a). Simulation-based robust optimization for complex truck-shovel systems in surface coal mines. R. Pasupathy, S. H. Kim., A. Tolk., R, Hill and M. E. Kuhl. Eds., Proceedings of the 45th Conference on Winter Simulation[H9] , 3522-3532. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE.
Nageshwaraniyer, S. S., Son, Y. J., & Dessureault, S. (2013b). Simulation-based optimal planning for material handling networks in mining. Simulation, 89(3), 330-345.
Ozdemir, B., & Kumral, M. (2019). Simulation-based optimization of truck-shovel material handling systems in multi-pit surface mines. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 95(6)[H10] , 36-48.
Pirouz, B., & Khorram, E. (2016). A computational approach based on the -constraint method in multi-objective optimization problems. Advances and Applications in Statistics, 49(6), 453-483.
Sgurev, V., Vassilev, V., Dokev, N., Genova, K., Drangajov, S., Korsemov, C., & Atanassov, A. (1989). TRASY: An automated system for real-time control of the industrial truck haulage in open-pit mines. European Journal of Operational Research, 43(1), 44-52.
Shishvan, M. S., & Benndorf, J. (2019). Simulation-based optimization approach for material dispatching in continuous mining systems. European Journal of Operational Research. 275(3), 1108-1125.
Subtil, R. F., Silva, D. M., and Alves, J. C. (2011). A practical approach to truck dispatch for open pit mines,. 35th APCOM Symposium, 24-30.
Tekin, E., & Sabauncuoglu, I. (2004). Simulation optimization: A comprehensive review on theory and applications. IIE Transactions, 36(11), 1067-1081.
Upadhyay, S. P., & Askari-Nasab, H. (2018). Simulation and optimization approach for uncertainty-based short-term planning in open pit mines. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 28(2), 153-166.
Upadhyay, S. S., Tabesh, M., Badiozamani, M., & Askari-Nasab, H. (2019). A simulation model for estimation of mine haulage fleet productivity. E, Topal. Ed., International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, 42-50.[H11]  Cham: Springer.
White, J., Arnold, M., & Clevenger, J. (1982). Automated open-pit truck dispatching at Tyrone. Engineering and Mining Journal, 6[H12] (2), 76-84.
White, J., Olson, J., & Vohnout, S. (1993). On improving truck/shovel productivity in open pit mines. CIM Bulletin, 86, 43-49.
Zeinali, F., Mahootchi, M., & Sepehri, M. M. (2015). Resource planning in the emergency departments: A simulation-based metamodeling approach. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 53[H13] (4),123-138.
Zhang, L., & Xia, X. (2015). An integer programming approach for truck-shovel dispatching problem in open-pit mines. Energy Procedia, 75[H14] (12), 1779-1784.
 [H1] Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor First Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title (pp. page range of paper). Place of Publication: Publisher.
 [H7]Not found in the text
 [H8]Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor First Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title (pp. page range of paper). Place of Publication: Publisher.
 [H9]Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor First Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title (pp. page range of paper). Place of Publication: Publisher.
 [H11]Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor First Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title (pp. page range of paper). Place of Publication: Publisher.