Who is an Ideal Organizational Leader in Iran? Examining the Content, Structure, and Consequences of Iranian Implicit Leadership Theories (IILTS)

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Management, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran


Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs) are individuals’ perceptions of the traits and behaviors characterizing leaders. Four studies investigated the reliabilities and different types of validities for a scale developed to measure Iranian Implicit leadership Theories (IILTs). Study 1 used a qualitative method to extract the implicit theories of ideal leadership after interviewing 27 experts. The IILTs are represented by a first-order eight-factor model (Inspiring, Supportive, Accountable, Emotionally Mature, Decisive, Self-protective, Deceptive and Narrow-minded), and a second-order two-factor model (Prototypes and Anti-prototypes). In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure and further refine and examine the internal consistencies of the discovered factors. The analysis proved the factor structure of IILTs. Study 3 tested the convergent and discriminant validities of the developed scale for IILTs, and the results supported the validity of the developed scale. Study 4 investigated incremental and criterion validities via using two variables of LMX and job satisfaction. These studies provide convergent evidence that IILTs is a valid scale to be used in research. Ultimately, future research venues and practical implications are discussed.


Main Subjects

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