Analyzing the Impact of Diversity Management on Innovative Behaviors Through Employee Engagement and Affective Commitment

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Holder, Department of Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 Professor, Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan


This article aimed to analyze the direct and indirect impact of diversity management on innovative behavior through employee engagement and affective commitment. The sample used in this study came from a survey of 225 respondents who were employees of one of the prestigious universities in Mashhad. The data was gathered using a questionnaire and analyzed by structural equation modeling with Warp PLS 5. This research verified the direct effect of diversity management on employee innovative behavior. Moreover, results show that diversity management predicts employees’ affective commitment and employee engagement. The impact of affective commitment and employee engagement on employees’ innovative behavior was confirmed, too. The results show that diversity management, affective commitment, and employee engagement predict each phase of idea generation, idea promotion, and idea implementation. Based on this study, we recommend that human resource practices should institutionalize effective diversity management like training, employment, progression, and promotion. Furthermore, the high level of employee engagement and affective commitment could be considered by universities to increase innovative behavior. The current research addresses a gap in the current literature in the diversity management and innovative behavior context by employing different theoretical bases, including Social Exchange Theory and Institutional Theory.


Main Subjects

Abraham, S. (2012). Job satisfaction as an antecedent to employee engagement. SIES Journal of Management, 8(2), 27-36.
Afsar, B., & Badir, Y. (2017). Workplace spirituality, perceived organizational support and innovative work behavior. Journal of Workplace Learning, 29(2), 95-109.
Agarwal, U. A. (2014). Examining the impact of social exchange relationships on innovative work behaviour: Role of work engagement. Team Performance Management, 20(3/4), 102-120.
Agarwal, U. A., Datta, S., Blake-Beard, S., & Bhargava, S. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behavior and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work engagement. Career Development International, 17(3), 208-230.
Ahanchian, M. & Ganji, S.F.G. (2017). The effect of perceptions of ethical context on job satisfaction with emphasis on work values: The case of female staff at an Iranian university. International Journal of Work Organization and Emotion, 8(2), 118-130.
Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(3), 267-285.
Ashikali, T., & Groeneveld, S. (2015). Diversity management in public organizations and its effect on employees’ affective commitment leadership and the inclusiveness of the organizational cultural. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 35(2), 146-168.
Babakus, E., Babakus, E., Yavas, U., Yavas, U., Karatepe, O. M., & Karatepe, O. M. (2017). Work engagement and turnover intentions: Correlates and customer orientation as a moderator. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(6), 1580-1598.
Bammens, Y. P. (2016). Employees' innovative behavior in social context: A closer examination of the role of organizational care. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 33(3), 244-259.
Bastaman, A. (2020). Consumer Environmental Awareness, Attitude and Behavior: Case study of a higher education institution. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, 8(1), 121-143.
Bizri, R. (2018). Diversity management and OCB: The connection evidence from the Lebanese banking sector. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.‏ 37(3), 233-253.
Bonini Campos, J. A. D., & Prado C, D. (2012). Cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the patient-generated subjective global assessment. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 27(2), 583-594.
Chrobot-Mason, D., & Aramovich, N. P. (2013). The psychological benefits of creating an affirming climate for workplace diversity. Group & Organization Management, 38(6), 659-689.
Chughtai, A. A. (2013). Linking affective commitment to supervisor to work outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(6), 606-627.
Corley, K., & Gioia, D. (2011). Building theory about theory building: What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32.
Cropanzano, R., Anthony, E., Daniels, S., & Hall, A. (2017). Social exchange theory: A critical review with theoretical remedies. The Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 1-38.
Dollard, M. F., & Idris, M. A. (2017). Climate congruence: How espoused psychosocial safety climate and enacted managerial support affect emotional exhaustion and work engagement. Safety Science, 96, 132-142.
Downey, S. N., van der Werff, L., Thomas, K. M., & Plaut, V. C. (2015). The role of diversity practices and inclusion in promoting trust and employee engagement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45(1), 35-44.‏
Edwin, M. F. (2002). Diversity management: Successful strategies for implementing diversity plans for the 21st century[H1] , ‏ (Doctoral dissertation, University of Sarasota).University of Sarasota
Fatemi, S. Z., Sadeghian, S., Ganji, S. F. G., & Johnson, L. W. (2021). Do different genders' knowledge sharing behaviors drive different innovative behavior? The moderating effect of social capital. European Journal of Innovation Management.‏[H2]
Fleming, J. H., & Asplund, J. (2007). Human sigma. Gallup Press,
Ganji, S. F. G., & Ahanchian, M. R. (2016). Perception of the organization's ethical context effect on female employees’ turnover intention with work values as the moderator. Organizational Resources Management Researches, 6(3), 129-152.
Ganji, S. F. G., Kafashpour, A., & Sorkhan, V. B. (2017). The effect of ethical context perceptions to the job response: emphasizing work value: Acase of study female staff at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Quarterly Journal of Women Studies Sociological and Psychological, 14(4), 69-94.
Ganji, S. F. G, & Johnson, L. W. (2020). The relationship between family emotional support, psychological capital, female job satisfaction and turnover intention. International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Studies, 7(1), 59-70,
Ganji, S. F. G, & Kafashpour, A. (2016). A survey of the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between ethical context and female employees' job response. Sociology of Women (Journal of Woman and Society), 7(3), 1-18.
Gatenby, M., Alfes, K., Truss, C., Rees, C., & Soane, E. C. (2009). Harnessing employee engagement in UK public services [Paper presentation]. 10th Public Management Research Association Conference, Columbus, Ohio.
Ghasempour Ganji, S. F., Johnson, L. W., Babazadeh Sorkhan, V., & Banejad, B. (2021). The effect of employee empowerment, organizational support, and ethical climate on turnover intention: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 14(2), 311-329.‏
Gichohi, P. M. (2014). The role of employee engagement in revitalizing creativity and innovation at the workplace: A survey of selected libraries in Meru County-Kenya.‏ Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). 1171.[H3]
Gould-Williams, J., & Mohamed, R. B. (2010). A comparative study of the effects of ‘best practice’ HRM on worker outcomes in Malaysia and England local government. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(5), 653-675.‏
Groeneveld, S., & Van de Walle, S. (2010). A contingency approach to representative bureaucracy: Power, equal opportunities and diversity. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 76, 239-258.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Prentice-Hall.
Hakimian, F., Farid, H., Ismail, M. N., & Nair, P. K. (2016). Importance of commitment in encouraging employees’ innovative behaviour. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration,8(1), 1-25.  
Hammond, M. M., Neff, N. L., Farr, J. L., Schwall, A. R., & Zhao, X. (2011). Predictors of individual-level innovation at work: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 90-105.
Hapsari, C., Stoffers, J., & Gunawan, A. (2019). The influence of generational diversity management and leader–member exchange on innovative work behaviors mediated by employee engagement. Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, 20(2), 125-139,
Howard-Grenville, J. A., & Hoffman, A. J. (2003). The importance of cultural framing to the success of social initiatives in business. Academy of Management Perspectives, 17(2), 70-84.‏
Huang, L.-C., Ahlstrom, D., Lee, A.Y.-P., Chen, S.-Y., & Hsieh, M.-J. (2016). High performance work systems, employee well-being, and job involvement: An empirical study. Personnel Review, 45(2), 296-314.
Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204.<195::AID-SMJ13>3.0.CO;2-7
Jafri, M. (2010). Organizational commitment and employee's innovative behaviour: A study in retail sector. Journal of Management Research, 10(1), 62-68.
Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287-302,
Jayne, M. E., & Dipboye, R. L. (2004). Leveraging diversity to improve business performance: Research findings and recommendations for organizations. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 409-424.‏
Jones, J. (2019). Ethical Climate and Corporate Social Responsibility, Master of Science in Industrial Organizational Psychology at The University of Texas.
Joshi, M. (2017). Invention, innovation and innovative practices: A reason to study in a VUCA perspective. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, 5(2), 97-102.
Jung, H. S., & Yoon, H. H. (2018). Improving frontline service employees' innovative behavior using conflict management in the hospitality industry: The mediating role of engagement. Tourism Management, 69, 498-507.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.
Kakabadse, N. K., Figueira, C., Nicolopoulou, K., Hong Yang, J., Kakabadse, A. P., & Özbilgin, M. F. (2015). Gender diversity and board performance: Women's experiences and perspectives. Human Resource Management, 54(2), 265-281.‏
Kang, J. H., Matusik, J. G., Kim, T. Y., & Phillips, J. M. (2016). Interactive effects of multiple organizational climates on employee innovative behavior in entrepreneurial firms: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(6), 628-642.
Kim, M. S., & Ko, D. W. (2017). Linking LMX, engagement, innovative behavior, and job performance in hotel employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. ‏ 29(12), 3044-3062.
Kim, W., & Park, J. (2017). Examining structural relationships between work engagement, organizational procedural justice, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behavior for sustainable organizations. Sustainability, 9(2), 1-16.‏
Klein, H. J., Molloy, J. C., & Brinsfield, C. T. (2012). Reconceptualizing workplace commitment to redress a stretched construct: Revisiting assumptions and removing confounds. Academy of Management Review, 37, 130-151.
Kumar, M., & Bharadwaj, A. (2016). Psychology of innovation: Innovating human psychology? In Franz W. Gatzweiler · Joachim von Braun [H4] (Eds.), Technological and institutional innovations for marginalized smallholders in agricultural development (pp. 65-80). Springer, Cham. ‏
Kwon, K., & Kim, T. (2020). An integrative literature review of employee engagement and innovative behavior: Revisiting the JD-R model. Human Resource Management Review, 30(2), 10074[H5] 1-18.
Lai, J., Lui, S. S., & Tsang, E. W. (2016). Intrafirm knowledge transfers and employee innovative behavior: The role of total and balanced knowledge flows. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 33(1), 90-103.
Lambert, J. (2016). Cultural diversity as a mechanism for innovation: Workplace diversity and the absorptive capacity framework. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 20(1), 68[H6] -77.‏
Luu, T. T. (2019). Can diversity climate shape service innovative behavior in Vietnamese and Brazilian tour companies? The role of work passion. Tourism Management, 72, 326-339.‏
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.
Medvedeva, T. A. (2012). Developing an innovative style of thinking and innovative behavior. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 25(3), 261-272.
Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.
Mura, M., Lettieri, E., Radaelli, G., & Spiller, N. (2013). romoting professionals' innovative behaviour through knowledge sharing: The moderating role of social capital. Journal of Knowledge Management, 17( 4),  527-544.
Ng, E. S., & Parry, E. (2016). Multigenerational research in human resource management. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 34, 1–41.
Noerchoidah, N., & Harjanti, D. (2019). Exploring the relationship between procedural justice and innovative work behavior in hospitality industry. Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, 21(1), 21-31.‏
O’Connor, E. P., & Crowley-Henry, M. (2019). Exploring the relationship between exclusive talent management, perceived organizational justice and employee engagement: Bridging the literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 156(4), 903-917.‏
Odoardi, C., Battistelli, A., Montani, F., & Peiró, J. M. (2019). Affective commitment, participative leadership, and employee innovation: a multilevel investigation. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 35(2), 103-113.
Parry, E., & Urwin, P. (2011). Generational differences in work values: A review of theory and evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13, 79–96.
Peters, J. (2000). Buyer market power and innovative activities. Review of Industrial Organization, 16(1), 13-38. ‏
Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(4), 609-623.
Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122-141.
Potocnik, K., & Anderson, N. (2016). A constructively critical review of change and innovation-related concepts: Towards conceptual and operational clarity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25, 481-494.
Presbitero, A. (2017). How do changes in human resource management practices influence employee engagement? A longitudinal study in a hotel chain in the Philippines. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 16(1), 56-70.
Prieto, I. M., & Pérez-Santana, M. P. (2014). Managing innovative work behavior: The role of human resource practices. Personnel Review, 43(2), 184-208.
Pukienė, A., & Škudienė[H7] , V. (2016). Innovative work behavior-the role of human resource management and affective commitment (Unpublished master's thesis). ISM University of Management and Economics).‏
Rothmann, S. (2017). Employee engagement. In L. G. Oades, M. Steger, A. Delle Fave, & J. Passmore (Eds), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Positivity and Strengths-Based Approaches at Work (pp. …). 317-342). [H8] Wiley Blackwell.
Saether, E. A. (2019). Motivational antecedents to high-tech R&D employees' innovative work behavior: Self-determined motivation, person-organization fit, organization support of creativity, and pay justice. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 30(2), 1003-1050.
Salamzadeh, A., Farjadian, A. A., Amirabadi, M., and Modarresi, M. (2014). Entrepreneurial characteristics: Insights from undergraduate students in Iran. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 21(2), 165-182.
Sameer, Y. M. (2018). Innovative behavior and psychological capital: Does positivity make any difference? Journal of Economics & Management, 32, 75-101. ‏
Schaijk, S. V. (2018). The Relationship between affective organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and innovative behavior. In a Research with Extensive Training and Innovative Organizational Climate as Moderators (Master thesis in Business Administration, Radboud University Nijmegen), sequence=1 [H9] 
Shin, S. J., Yuan, F., & Zhou, J. (2017). When perceived innovation job requirement increases employee innovative behavior: A sense making perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(1), 68-86.
Shunlong, X., & Weiming, Z. (2012). The relationships between transformational leadership, LMX, and employee innovative behavior. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 13(5), 87-96.‏
Solinger, O., Van Olffen, W., & Roe, R. A. (2008). Beyond the three component model of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 70-83.
Thomas, R. R. (1990).  From affirmative action to affirming diversity. Harvard Business Review, 68(2), 107-117.
Valentine, S., & Godkin, L. (2017). Banking employees’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility, value-fit commitment, and turnover intentions: Ethics as social glue and attachment. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 29(2), 51-71.
Van de Ven, A. H. (1986). Central problems in the management of innovation. Management Science, 32(5), 590-607.
Van De Voorde, K., Paauwe, J., & Van Veldhoven, M. (2012). Employee well‐being and the HRM–organizational performance relationship: A review of quantitative studies. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(4), 391-407.
Van Zyl, L. E., Van Oort, A., Rispens, S., & Olckers, C. (2019). Work engagement and task performance within a global Dutch ICT-consulting firm: The mediating role of innovative work behaviors. Current Psychology, 1[H10] -12.‏
Vinarski-Peretz, H., Binyamin, G., & Carmeli, A. (2011). Subjective relational experiences and employee innovative behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78, 290-304.
Waheed, A., Xiao-Ming, M., Ahmad, N., & Waheed, S. (2017, August). Impact of work engagement and innovative work behavior on organizational performance: Moderating role of perceived distributive fairness. In … (Eds.), International Conference on Management Science and Engineering (ICMSE) (pp. 127-133)....‏[H11] ), Nomi, Japan, IEEE,
Wang, X. H. F., Kim, T. Y., & Lee, D. R. (2016). Cognitive diversity and team creativity: Effects of team intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership. Journal of Business Research, 69, 3231–3239. 
West, M. A. (2002). Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation in work groups. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 355-386.
West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (1990). Innovation at work. In M. A. West & J. L. Farr (Eds.), Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies (pp.1-37). Wiley.
West, M. A. & Farr, J. L. (1989), Innovation at work: Psychological perspectives. Social Behaviour, 4(1), 15-30.
Wu, T-J.,  & Wu, Y. J. (2019). Innovative work behaviors, employee engagement, and surface acting: A delineation of supervisor-employee emotional contagion effects. Management Decision, 75(11), 3200-3216.
Yasir, M., & Majid, A. (2020). High-involvement HRM practices and innovative work behavior among production-line workers: Mediating role of employee's functional flexibility. Employee Relations: The International Journal, ‏ 42(4), 883-902.
Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107-128.‏
 [H1]The rest of the reference?
 [H2]Vol(issue), pp.
It is published in press and do not have any vol or number yet.
 [H3]Is Vol(issue) available?
No it is not available
 [H4]Write the name of the editors
 [H5]Only one page?
 [H6]Only one page?
 [H7]Two people as the authors of a thesis? Please check the accuracy of this.
I could not find this paper, so I deleted the reference in text.
 [H8]Page range?
 [H9]The type of entry is not clear. Is it a thesis, book chapter, or something else? Please rewrite it in the due format.
It is master thesis
It is published in press. Do not have any vol or number yet.
 [H11]City, country: publisher
The editor is not available.