Understanding Environmental Awareness Through Green Marketing: An Empirical Study Using Q-Methodology

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, Ershad Damavand Institute of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate, Faculty of Management, Ershad Damavand Institute of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc., Faculty of Management, Ershad Damavand Institute of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this study was understanding environmental awareness about factors of green marketing and creating an indicator those factors. In this study, based on research concourse, theoretical foundations, and mental patterns of experts, the factors affecting green marketing have been selected, grouped, and interpreted based on Q-method steps. The 19 participants present in the study sample were asked to sort and value the factors influencing green marketing in Q sorting layout. Based on this evaluation, six specific functional indicators have been revealed. The changes in the experts’ mental patterns seem to be partly driven by the environmental orientations and the founders of the firms. This study contributes to the existing knowledge base by confirming the current literature on green marketing. Moreover, given the central importance and effect of the indices, the six indices have more importance and significance in green marketing. Their recognition can be used reflexively to predict and manage potential challenges and conflicts in this arena.


Main Subjects

Article Title [فارسی]

درک آگاهی‌های محیطی از طریق بازاریابی سبز: به‌کارگیری روش کیو در مطالعه تجربی

Authors [فارسی]

  • سمانه لاجوردی 1
  • محمدجواد بختیاری 2
  • بنفشه حصاری 3
1 استادیار، گروه مدیریت، موسسه آموزش عالی ارشاد دماوند، تهران، ایران
2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت، موسسه آموزش عالی ارشاد دماوند، تهران، ایران
3 کارشناس ارشد، گروه مدیریت، موسسه آموزش عالی ارشاد دماوند، تهران، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

هدف از مطالعه حاضر، درک آگاهی‌های محیطی از عوامل بازاریابی سبز و شاخص‌سازی از آن عوامل است. در این مطالعه، بر اساس فضای گفتمان پژوهش و مبانی نظری و نیز الگوهای ذهنی خبرگان، عوامل مؤثر بر بازاریابی سبز انتخاب و بر اساس مراحل روش کیو، گروه‌بندی و تفسیر شده‌است. از نمونه آماری (19 مشارکت‌کننده خبره در بازاریابی) خواسته شد عامل های اثرگذار درباره بازاریابی سبز را در نمودارهای کیو رتبه‌بندی و ارزش‌گذاری کنند. بر اساس این ارزش‌گذاری، شش شاخص عملکردی و خاص آشکار شده است. به نظر می‌رسد تغییرات الگوی ذهنی خبرگان، تا حدودی تحت تأثیر جهت‌گیری محیطی و بنیان‌گذاران شرکت‌ها باشد. سهم این مطالعه با تأیید ادبیات موجود در زمینه بازاریابی سبز نشان می‌دهد، با توجه به اهمیت و تأثیر محوری شاخص‌ها، شش شاخص از معناداری و اهمیت بیشتری در بازاریابی سبز برخوردارند که شناخت آنها، می‌تواند در بازاندیشی برای پیش‌بینی و مدیریت چالش‌ها و تضادهای بالقوه در این حوزه کاربرد داشته باشد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آگاهی‌های محیطی
  • بازاریابی‌سبز
  • شاخص‌سازی
  • الگوهای ذهنی
  • روش‌کیو
Al-Surmia, A., Cao, G., & Duan, Y. (2020). The impact of aligning business, IT, and marketing strategies on firm performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 84, 39–49.
Asghari Sarem, A., Danaee Fard, H., Fani, A. A., & Gholipour, A. (2016). Understanding the Role of Organizational Storytelling in HRD: A Literature review. Journal of Public Administration, 8(1), 181-218.
Brown, S. R. (1996). Q methodology and qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 6(4), 561-567.
Chang, N. J., & Fong, C. M. (2010). Green product quality, green corporate image, green customer satisfaction, and green customer loyalty. African Journal of Business Management, 4(13), 2836-2844.
Chen, Y. S. (2010). Towards green loyalty: driving from green perceived value, green satisfaction, and green trust. Sustainable Development, 21(5), 294-308.
Chkanikova, O., & Lehner, M. (2015). Private eco-brands and green market development: Towards new forms of sustainability governance in the food retailing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 107, 74 –84.
D'amato, D., Droste, N., Winkler, K. J., & Toppinen, A. (2019). Thinking green, circular or bio: Eliciting researchers' perspectives on a sustainable economy with Q method. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 460-476.
Dixon, B. R. (2018). Perceptions of study abroad in China: Why do students want to participate? [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. North Carolina State University.
Duenckmann, F. (2010). The village in the mind: Applying Q-methodology to re-constructing constructions of rurality. Journal of Rural Studies. 26(3), 284-295.
Doz, Y. (2020). Fostering strategic agility: How individual executives and human resource practices contribute. Human Resource Management Review, 30(1), 100693.
Farndale, E. & Paauwe, J. (2018). SHRM and context: Why firms want to be as different as legitimately possible. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 5(3), 202-210.
Goodman, M., Rolland, D., & Bazzoni, J. O. K. (2009). Greening corporate identity: CSR online corporate identity reporting. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Aug 7.
Graciela, C., Helmut, F., & Janice, J. (2019). Social media, open innovation & HRM: Implications for performance. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 144(C), 334-347.
Ha, E. H. (2014). Attitudes toward video-assisted debriefing after simulation in undergraduate nursing students: An application of Q methodology. Nurse Education Today, 34(6), 978-984.
He, Z. Y., & Yu, Y. (2004). The current situation of green marketing development and developing path in China. Journal of Peking University (Philosophy and Social Science), 41(6), 85–93.
Huang, Y., Qu, H., & Montgomery, D. (2016). The meanings of destination: A Q method approach. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 793-807[H1] .
Kaifeng, L., Hongyuan, Z., & Guiyu, C. Z. (2012). Analysis of relationship between China's energy investment and financing and the development of energy industry. Energy Procedia, 14, 655-661.
Khan, E. A., Royhan, P., Rahman, M. A., Rahman, M. M., & Mostafa, A. (2020). The impact of enviropreneurial orientation on small firms’ business performance: The mediation of green marketing mix and eco-labeling strategies. Journal Sustainability, 12(1), 221[H2] .
Ko, E., Hwang, Y. K., & Kim, E. Y. (2013). Green marketing functions in building corporate image in the retail setting. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1709–1715.
Kumar, P. (2016). State of green marketing research over 25 years (1990-2014): Literature survey and classification. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(1), 137-158.
LeCren, N., & Ozanne, L. K. (2011). Consequences of corporate environmental marketing strategies in New Zealand organizations. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Mar 29.
Macke, J., & Genari, D. (2019). Systematic literature review on sustainable human resource management. Journal of cleaner production, 208, 806-815. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.091.
McKeown, B., & Thomas, D. B. (2013). Q methodology (Vol. 66). Sage publications.
Narula, S. A., & Upadhyay, K. M. (2011). Product strategy vis‐à‐vis environment: Are strategies of pesticide manufacturers in India sustainable? Social Responsibility Journal, Jun 7.
Neuman, W. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Polonsky, M. J., & Rosenberger III, P. J. (2001). Reevaluating green marketing: a strategic approach. Business horizons, 44(5), 21-30.
Ramlo, S. E., & Newman, I. (2011). Reply to Stenner regarding Q methodology and its position in the mixed methods continuum. Operant Subjectivity, 34(3), 204-207.
Ranaei Kordshoulil, H., Ebrahimi1, A., & Allahyari Bouzanjani, A. (2015). An analysis of the green response of consumers to the environmentally friendly behavior of corporations. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 8(3), 315-334.
 Richey, R. G. Jr, Musgrove, C. F., Gillison, S. T., & Gabler, C. B. (2014). The effects of environmental focus and program timing on green marketing performance and the moderating role of resource commitment. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(7), 1246-1257.
Sexton, D., Snyder, P., Wadsworth, D., Jardine, A., & Ernest, J. (1998). Applying Q methodology to investigations of subjective judgments of early intervention effectiveness. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education18(2), 95-107.
Song, S. & Polonsky, M. (2016). Environmental marketing in greening corporate activities: Evidence from four Chinese green firms. European Business Review, 28(5), 506-531.
Szabo, S., & Webster, J. (2020). Perceived greenwashing: the effects of green marketing on environmental and product perceptions. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(2), 1-21.
Watts, S., & Stenner, P. (2012). Doing Q methodological research: Theory, method & interpretation. SAGE Publications Ltd. California, United States.
Webler, T., Danielson, S., & Tuler, S. (2009). Using Q method to reveal social perspectives in environmental research. Greenfield MA: Social and Environmental Research Institute, 54, 1-45.
Yu, W., Chavez, R., Feng, M., Wong, C., & Fynes, B. (2020). Green human resource management and environmental cooperation: An ability motivation opportunity and contingency perspective. International Journal of Production Economics, 219, 224-235.
Zabala, A. (2014). Q method: A package to explore human perspectives using Q methodology. https://aspace.repository.cam.ac.uk.
 [H1]Not found in the text
 [H2]Only one page?