How Does Human Capital of Public Sector Affect National Wellbeing?

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran


Achieving development alongside welfare is considered one of the main criteria of the power of countries. By virtue of unique authority, the public sector plays a significant role in increasing wellbeing. Thus, the aim of this research is to test relationships between variables with an emphasis on the role of human capital in promoting national wellbeing. The research methodology is correlation, and the primary sources of gathering data were international databases such as the World Bank, UNDP, UNPAN, etc. The analysis was at country level. Research results indicate that the public sector, with its unique human resource, can enhance the capacity for national competitiveness, improve good governance, and promote wellbeing.


Main Subjects

Article Title [فارسی]

چگونه سرمایه های انسانی بخش دولتی بر رفاه ملی تاثیر می گذارد؟

Authors [فارسی]

  • حسن دانایی فرد 1
  • جبار باباشاهی 2
1 استاد تمام دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد ،دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ،تهران ،ایران
2 استادیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

دستیابی به توسعه و تحقق رفاه، به عنوان یکی از معیارهای توانمندی کشورها محسوب می شود. بخش دولتی با داشتن اختیاراتی منحصر به فرد، نقشی کلیدی در ارتقاء رفاه ایفا می کند. با توجه به ملاحظات فوق، پژوهش حاضر با هدف آزمون رابطه متغیرهای متعدد با تمرکز بر نقش سرمایه های انسانی در بخش دولتی بر ارتقاء رفاه ملی انجام شده است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع همبستگی است و منبع اصلی گردآوری داده ها، پایگاه داده های معتبر بین المللی نظیر بانک جهانی، UNDP و .... می باشد. سطح تحلیل داده ها، ملی است. نتایج و یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که بخش دولتی با بهره مندی از سرمایه های انسانی توانمند و متمایز، می تواند ظرفیت رقابت پذیری ملی را ارتقاء دهد که این امر منجر به تقویت شاخص های حکمرانی خوب می شود که در نهایت زمینه برای ارتقاء رفاه ملی فراهم می آورد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • سرمایه انسانی
  • رفاه ملی
  • حکمرانی خوب
  • رقابت پذیری ملی
Abdellatif, A. M. (2003, May). Good governance and its relationship to democracy and economic development [Paper presentation]. Global Forum III on Fighting Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity. Seoul, South Korea.
Aibaghi Esfahani, S. (2010). A look at social capitals and its related issues in organization and management (3rd ed.). Paprik Publications. (Persian)
Amit, R. & Belcourt, M. (1999). Human resource management processes: A value creating source of competitive. European Management Journal, 17(2), 174-181.
Azad Armaki, G. (2000). Economy of stable development. Institution of Commercial Researches and Studies. (Persian)
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D., A. (1986). The moderator – mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(28), 1173-1182.
Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995). Economic Growth. McGrow Hill.
Beleiu, I., Pop, Z., Ch,. & Tampu, D. L. (2015). Effects of good governance on economic development – Case study on Romania. Review of Economic Studies and Research Virgil Madgearu, 1, 5-23. 
Berger, T., & Bristow, G. (2009). Competitiveness and the benchmarking of nations – A critical reflection. International  Advanced Economic Research, 15, 378-392.
Bernat, T., & Poteralski, J. (2006). Competitiveness of nations – A comparative analysis. Economics and Competition Policy, 2(3), 7-18.
Boyte, Harry. (2005). Reframing Democracy: Governance, Civic Agency, and Politics. Public Administration Review 65(5): 536-546.
Brooks, M. P. (2006). Planning theory for practitioner. Planner Press.
Burke, R. J., Allisey, A. F., & Noblet, A., J. (2013). The importance of human resource management in the public sector, future challenges and the relevance of the current collection. In Burke, Ronald J., Noblet, Andrew J. and Cooper, Cary L. (ed), Human resource management in the public sector, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, pp.1-13.
Chen, Jian, Fleisher, Belton, (1996). Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China. Journal of Comparative Economics 22, 141-164.
Cho, D. (1998). From national competitiveness to block and global competitiveness. Competitiveness Review, 8(1), 11-23.
Chong, A., & Gradstein, M. (2004). Inequality and institution. Research Department Working Paper No. 506, Inter- American Development Banlc, NY.
Clevland, J. (2009). An integrated framework for wealth creation in businesses. Innovation Network for Communities.
Cummins, R. A., & & Lau, A. L., Mellor, D., & Stokes, M., A. (2008). Encouraging governments to enhance the happiness of their nation: Step 1: Understand subjective wellbeing. Social Indices Research, 91, 23–36.
D’Acci, L. (2010). Measuring wellbeing and progress. Social Indicators Research. 104(1):47-65.
Danaee Fard, H. (2004). Strategies for fighting with corruption: Does IT reduce official corruption? Modares Journal, 9(2), 23-47. (Persian)
Danaee Fard, H., & Alvani, S. M. (2011). A review of public administration theories (1st ed.). Scientific and Cultural Publication Inc.
Davidson, S. (2004). The role of good governance in achieving the MDGs. The world bank.
Djankov, S., Georgieva, D., & Ramalho, R. (2018). Business regulation and poverty. Economic Letters, 165, 82-87.
Dollar, D., Kleineberg, T., & Kraay, A. (2016). Growth still is good for poor. European Economic Review, 81(1), 68-85.
Dunning, J. H. (1992). The competitive advantage of countries and the activities of transnational corporation. Transnational Corporation, 1 (1), 135 – 168.
Estes, R. J., & Sirgy, M., J. (2018). Global advances in quality of life and wellbeing: Past, present and future. Social Indicator Research, March 2018, 1-28.
Fosu, A., K. (2017). Growth, inequality and poverty reduction in developing countries: Recent global evidence. Research in Economics, 71, 306-336.
Frederickson, G., H. (1980). The lineage of new public administration. In C. J. Bellone (ED.), Handbook of organization theory and the new public administration (pp. 33–51). Allyn and Bacon.
Frederickson, G., H. (1996). Comparing the reinventing government movement with the new public administration. Public Administration Review, 56(3), 263–269.
Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2005). Beyond outcomes: Measuring procedural utility. Oxford Econ, Pap. 57(1), 90-111.
Fritzen, S. A., Serritzlew, S., & Svendsen, G., T. (2014). Corruption, trust and public sector consequences: Introduction to the special edition. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 16, 117-120.
Glatzer, W. (2006). Quality of life in the European union and the United States of America: Evidence from comprehensive indices. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1, 169–188.
Graham, J., & Fortier, E. (2006, March). Building governance capacity: The case of potable water in first nations communities. Aboriginal Policy Research Conference, Ottawa, Canada.
Helliwell, J., & Huang, H. (2008). How’s your government? International evidence linking good government and wellbeing. British Journal of Political Science, 38, 595–619.
Helliwell, J. F., Huang, H., Grover, Sh., & Wang, Sh. (2018). Empirical linkages between good governance and national wellbeing. Journal of Comparative Economics, 46(4), 1332-1346.
Hosseini, S, Y. (2010). Promotion model of development degree: explaining the national policy making capacity [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Tarbiat Modares University. (Persian)
Howlett, M. & Ramesh, M. (2001). The study of public policy. Translated into Persian by A. Monavariyan & E. Golshan. Public Administration Education Center.
Hunt, P. (2012). Health and wellbeing: The role of government. Public Health, 126, 519-523.
Ionesco, E. I., Merut, A., & Dragomiroiu, R. (2014). Role of mangers in management of change. Procedia Economics and Finance, 16, 293-298.
Javaid, U. (2010). Corruption and its deep impact on good governance in Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 48(1), 123-134.
Kardos, M. (2012). The reflection of good governance in sustainable development strategies. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 1166-1173.
Kaufman, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2010). The worldwide governance indicators, methodology and analytical issue. Washington: The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 5430. (
Kickert, W. J. M., Erik-Hans Klijn, J. F. M., K. (1997). Managing complex networks: Strategies for public sector. Sage.  
Keogh, P. (2010). Building a better Ireland. Construction Industry Council, the Association of Consulting Engineers of Ireland.
Knies, E., Boselie, P., Gould-Williams, J., & Vandenabeele, W. (2018). Strategic human resource management and public sector performance: Context matters. Milton Park, Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.
Knies, E., & Leisink, P. L. M. (2018). People management in the public sector. In Brewster, Ch and Cerdin, J, L. (Eds.), HRM in mission driven organizations (pp.15-46). Palgrave Macmillan.
Kuznets, S. (1935). Introduction to national income and capital formation: A Preliminary report. National. Bureau of Economic. Research, New York.
Liepe, Z. (2016, September). Conceptual framework of human capital systematic assessment at macro level [Paper presentation]. The 3rd International Conference on Business and Economics, Selangor, Malaysia.
Lowder, S. K., Bertini, R., & Croppenstedt, A. (2017). Poverty, social protection and agriculture: Level and trend in data. Global Food Security, 15, 94-107.
Malik, A., & Kohli, S. (2013). Maximizing wellbeing through democratic decentralization. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(3), 449-452.
Nasibli, A. (2009). Achieving good governance in a public sector with an effective anti-corruption actions: The case of Azerbaijan. Central European University, Department of Public Policy.
North, D. (1994). Economic performance through time. American Economics Review, 84, 359-368.
Okulicz-Kozaryn, A., Homles, O., & Avery, D., R. (2014). The subjective wellbeing political paradox: Happy welfare states and unhappy liberals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(6), 1300-1308.
Ott, J., C. (2010). Good governance and happiness in nations: Technical quality precedes democracy and quality beats size. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 353–368.
Patanakul, P., & Pinto, J. K. (2014). Examining the role of government policy on innovation. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 25, 97-107.
Polachek, S. W., & Bonn, I. (2004). How the human capital model explains why the gender wage gap narrowed. Institute for Study of Labor, Discussion papers, No. 1102.
Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of the nations, New York, NY.
Quah, J. S. T. (2013). Ensuring good governance in Singapore (is this experience transferable to other Asian countries). International Journal of Public Sector Management, 26(5), 401-420.
Rainey, G. H., & Chun Han, Y. (2005). Public and private management compared, in Ewan Ferlie, Laurence E. Lynn Jr., and Christopher Pollitt (Eds.), The oxford handbook of public management, pp: 72 - 102. Oxford University Press.
Raudeliuniene, J. & Meidute-Kavaliauskiene, I. (2014). Analysis of factors motivating human resource in public sector. Contemporary Issues in Business, Management and Education, 110, 719-726.
Ribero, L. L., & Marinho, E. L. L. (2017). Gross national happiness in Brazil: An analysis of its determinant. EconomiA, 18, 156-167.
Rindermann, H., Kodil-Tedika, O., & Christainsen, G. (2015). Cognitive capital, good governance and the wealth of nations. Intelligence, 51, 98-108.  
Rugman, A. M. (1992). Porter takes the wrong turn. Business Quarterly, 56 (3). 59-64.
Silvia, M. (2006). Competitiveness: Microeconomic foundations to national determinants. Studies in Business and Economics, 1(1), 29-35.
Skorkova, Z. (2016). Competency model in public sector. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 226-234.
Tahmasbi, R. (2011). Review of public administration theories. SAMT Publications. (Persian)
Veenhoven, R. (2007, April). Measure of gross national happiness [Paper presentation]. ECD Conference on Measurability and Policy Relevance of Happiness, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Veenhoven, R. (2008). World database of happiness, item bank. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Accessed March 2009
Virtanen, T. (2000). Changing competencies of public managers: Tensions in commitment. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 13(4), 333-341.
Whitsel, L. P. (2017). Government’s role in promoting healthy living. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 59, 492-497. 
Wong, A. & Brahmakulam, I. (2002). USAID and science and technology capacity building for development. RAND Science and Technology, U.S. Agency for International Development.
Yousef, M., Ihsan, F., & Ellahi, A. (2016). Exploring the impact of good governance on citizen’s trust in Pakistan. Government of Informant Quarterly, 33(1), 200-209.