Design and Validating a Framework of High-School Crisis-Management Curriculum (The Case of Covid-19 Crisis)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty Education & Psychology, University of Tabriz, Iran


The present study aimed to develop and validate a curriculum framework based on crisis management. Research method was mixed and in qualitative part was used Grinded theory and in the quantitative part, descriptive survey. Sampling was done in a purposeful way until the theoretical saturation of the data with 15 experts. The data collection tool in the qualitative section was semi-structured in-depth interview and in the quantitative section, researcher-made questionnaire. For the validity of the instruments, the reliability and content validity technique was used, and for the reliability, the reliability test and Cronbach's alpha were used. To analyze the data in the qualitative part, content analysis was used using open and axial coding, and in the quantitative part, Friedman's test and one-sample t-test and SPSS software. The results showed that the developed curriculum framework is favorable in terms of usefulness and implementation capability.


Ahmad, D (2012). The principals’ ability to cope with crisis management in jadeh city, educational college, Abed Alaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
Debes, G (2021). Teachers’ Perception of Crisis Management in Schools. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching 8, No. 2, 638-652.
Di Pietro, G, Biagi, F., Costa, P., KarpiƄski Z., Mazza, J. (2020). The likely impact of COVID-19 on education: Reflections based on the existing literature and international datasets (2020). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-19937-3, doi:10.2760/126686, JRC121071.
Duiven, R. (2012). Inter-Agency Crisis Management in the Netherlands. Presentation, First OECD/Swiss Federal Chancellery Workshop on Strategic Crisis Management, Geneva, June 28.
Faramarzi Nia Z, Shahi S; Naeemzadeh A (2015). Crisis Management and Earthquake Preparedness Training in Education, International Management Conference, Tehran, Mobin Cultural Ambassadors Institute, available. [in Persian].
Hatamloy, F (2014). Crisis Management, a New Educational Approach in Schools and Assessing Its Impact in Educational Environments, First International Congress on Earth, Space and Clean Energy, Mohaghegh Ardabili University. Available on the Civilica site [in Persian].
Hodgkin, M (2007). Negotiating Change: Participatory Curriculum Design in Emergencies. Current Issues in Comparative Education 9, No. 2. 33-44.
Holzweiss, P., Walker, D., Chisum, R (2020). Crisis Planning for Online Students: Lessons Learned from a Major Disruption. Online Learning, 24(2): 22-37.
Hoskova, M, (2020). Education and Training in Crisis Management. Online Submission, International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY) (7th, Rhodos, Greece, Oct 10-15, 2016)
Javanmard, F S; Askari Fard Jahromi, F; Dostbin, F (2015). Content analysis of social education and experimental sciences textbooks in elementary school in terms of attention to environmental problems. Second International Conference on Environment and Natural Resources [in Persian].
Javed, M , Niazi, (2015). Crisis Preparedness and Response for Schools: An Analytical Study of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice l6 (22): 32-48 [in Persian].
Jobet, J.C. (2012). Lessons, improvements and challenges after the 2010 earthquake in Chile, Presentation, First OECD/Swiss Federal Chancellery Workshop on Strategic Crisis Management, Geneva.
Karasavidou, E; Alexopoulos, N (2019). School Crisis Management: Attitudes and Perceptions of Primary School Teachers. European Journal of Educational Management 2(2): 73-84.
Khamoushi Bidgoli, J; Mazaheri,  H (2019). A study of the amount and type of attention to environmental components in elementary school textbooks. Curriculum Studies Quarterly, 5(14): 64-81 [in Persian].
Kruger, J; Brener. N; Leeb, R; Wolkin, A; Avchen, R. N; Dziuban, E (2018). School district crisis preparedness, response, and recovery plans—United States,. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(30), 809-814.
McBrayer, J Sergi; T, Dawn; T, Jeffrey; D, Terry; Fallon, K (2020). Keeping Our Students Safe: Examining Perceptions of Crisis Frequency and Preparedness of Educators in a Statewide Online Charter School. Journal of Online Learning Research 6(2): 107-127.
McNamara, A (2021). Crisis Management in Higher Education in the Time of COVID-19: The Case of Actor Training. Education Sciences 11, article 132.
Mueller, N. (2010), Proposition for a multi-dimensional, integrated approach for a crisis management system on a national level, 14th Annual Conference of the International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Conference, Berne, 2010.
National Education Association. (2018). School crisis guide: help and healing in a time of crisis: before, during, after. Washington, D.C. (1201 16th St., NW, Suite 216, Washington 20036).
Ozkayran, S; Yetis, A; Aslihan, A (2020). The Opinions of Teachers on Crisis Management in Guidance Services. Educational Process: International Journal 9(4): 205-220.
Poorahmadi, Sh; Ebadi, T; Abdullah; Y (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of crisis management training courses in schools, International Conference on Art and Environmental Engineering, Poland, available at Civilica [in Persian].
Rashidi, A; Sharifi, K; Golmohammadian, M; Naghshineh, T (2015). The level of attention to environmental education in elementary school textbooks from the perspective of teachers of this level, Razi International Conference Center, 7 [in Persian].
Salehi, I; Parhizgar, L; Hatamifar, L (2015). Investigating the position of the main components of environmental education in the textbooks of the sixth grade of elementary school. Quarterly Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development 15(2): 99-89 [in Persian].
Siraj Khorami, N; Absalanzadeh, S (2014). Content Analysis of Social Education Experimental Science Textbooks in All Elementary School Levels with Consideration of Global Environment Issues, 2nd National Scientific-Research Congress on Development and Promotion of Educational Science and Psychology, Sociology and Social Cultural Sciences of Iran, Tehran, Scientific Association for the Development and Promotion of Basic Sciences and Technologies [in Persian].
Torabi ziearatgahi, L (2015). Review of the content of elementary experimental science books in terms of attention to biological components, the second national conference on passive defense in agriculture, natural resources and environment with a sustainable development approach [in Persian].
Tysinger, J., Tysinger, D., McBrayer, J.S., & Diamanduros, T. (2020). Perspectives, training, and preparedness of frequently and infrequently crisis events in online learning environments. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 20(5): 61-69.
Tysinger, P.D., Tysinger, J.A., & Diamanduros, T. D. (2016). Crisis events in K-12 online learning: Educator perceptions and preparedness. National Youth-At-Risk Journal, 2(1): 41- 48.
Wachter M, C. A., & Barrio Minton, C. A. (2012). Crisis in the curriculum? New counselors’ crisis preparation, experiences, & self-efficacy. Counselor Education and Supervision, 51: 256-269. DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2012.00019. x.