Cyberloafing Management in Organizations

Document Type: Review article

Authors

1 Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus University of Tehran, Qom Iran

2 Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Entering into the third millennium and current information age, organizations and
people are increasingly using technologies and networks. In recent decades,
technological progresses have rapidly dominated the world. In this vein, the
emergence of the Internet in different aspects of life is considered to be the greatest
development of the 21st century. The Internet, along with technological
advancements in the workplace, has created new opportunities for individuals’
deviational behaviours. As a result, organizations face serious challenges. Internet
emergence in the workplace has created many opportunities for organizations, e.g.,
increasing the velocity of communications in the organization. On the other hand,
employees can use the internet for personal and non-working purposes. Online
activities with personal aims are called cyberloafing/ cyberslacking. Hence,
cyberloafing management is highly important. In this paper, we analyse the
importance of this subject, as well as the different aspects of this phenomenon. To
do this, we discuss relevant literature and texts. We also show these aspects in an
Antecedents Behaviour Consequences (ABC) model. In this model, personality, job
demands, role conflict, organizational policies and organizational justice are
considered as the antecedents. Cyberloafing as behaviour, productivity and
exhaustion are the consequences.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

مدیریت سایبرلوفینگ (گشت زنی اینترنتی) در سازمان‌ها

Authors [Persian]

  • غلامرضا جندقی 1
  • سید مهدی الوانی 2
  • حسن زارعی متین 1
  • سمیرا فاخری کوزه کنان 1
1 دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، ایران
2 دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طبا طبایی، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

باورود به هزاره سوم ودر عصر اطلاعات کنونی، افراد و سازمانها به طور فزاینده ای از تکنولوژیها و شبکه ها استفاده می کنند و در طول دهه های اخیر نیز پیشرفت های تکنولوژیکی با سرعت زیادی جهان را تحت سیطره خود درآورده است در این بین، ظهور اینترنت، بزرگترین دستاورد قرن 21، در جنبه های مختلف زندگی و همچنین پیشرفت های فناوری در محیط کار، فرصتهای جدیدی را جهت رفتارهای انحرافی افراد خلق کرده و سازمانها را با چالشهای جدی مواجه کرده است. ظهور اینترنت در محیط کاری، امکانات زیادی را برای سازمانها فراهم می کند، برای نمونه افزایش سرعت ارتباطات در سازمان و ... اما از طرفی دیگر کارمندان این فرصت را دارند که از اینترنت در جهت مقاصد شخصی و غیرکاری استفاده کنند. این فعالیتهای آنلاین و با اهداف شخصی، گشت زنی اینترنتی نامیده می شود از این رو مدیریت سایبرلوفینگ از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار بوده و در این تحقیق و با توجه به اهمیت این موضوع سعی می شود ابعاد گوناگون این پدیده بر مبنای ادبیات موضوع مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در مدل abc نیز شخصیت، نوع شغل، تضاد نقش و سیاستهای سازمان و عدالت سازمانی به عنوان پیشایندها، سایبرلوفینگ بعنوان رفتار و بهره وری و خستگی بعنوان پیامدها در نظر گرفته شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اینترنت
  • گشت
  • زنی اینترنتی
  • سازمان
Askew, K, (2012). The Relationship Between Cyberloafing and Task
Performance and an Examination of the Theory of Planned Behavior
as a Model of Cyberloafing. A dissertation submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of
Philosophy, Phd Thesis, Department of Psychology University of
South Florida.
Belanger, F, (2009). “Abuse or learning?”. Communications of the ACM, 45,
64-65.
Blanchard, A.L. & Henle, C.A. (2008). “Correlates of different forms of
Cyberloafing: The role of norms and external locus of control”.
Computers in Human Behaviour, 24, 1067-1084.
Blau, G.; Yang, Y. & Ward-Cook, K. (2004). “Testing a measure of cyber
loafing”. Journal of Allied Health. 35, 1-9.
Caplan, S.E. (2002). “Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being:
development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioural measurement
instrument”. Computers in Human Behaviour, 18, 553-575.
Doorn ,O. (2011). Cyberloafing: A multi-dimensional construct placed in a
theoretical framework. MS Thesis, Eindhoven University of
Technology, Netherlands.
Freimark, O. (2012). The role of organizational citizenship behavior and
organizational justice on intention to cyberloaf through a general
deterrence. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the doctor of philosophy degree in business
administration.
Garrett, R.K. & Danziger, J.N. (2008). “On Cyberslacking: Workplace
Status and Personal Internet Use at Work”. Cyberpsychology &
Behaviour, 11(3), 287-292.
Gregory, M, (2011). A multi-theoretical perspective on IS security
behaviors. Academic dissertation University of Oulu, Faculty of
Science, Finland.
Hartke, J. (2008). Relationships between the Big Five personality dimensions
and cyberloafing behavior. Phd Thesis, southern Illinois university at
Carbondale.
Henle, C. A. & Blanchard, A. L. (2008). “The interaction of work stressors
and organizational sanctions on cyber loafing”. Journal of Managerial
Issues. 2, 383-400.
Kidwell, R.E. (2010). “Loafing in the 21st century: Enhanced opportunities
– and remedies – for withholding job effort in the new workplace”. 

Business Horizons, 53, 543-552.
Lim, V & Chen, D., (2009). “Cyberloafing at the workplace: gain or drain on
work?”. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(4), 343-353.
Lim, V, (2002). “The IT way of loafing on the job: Cyberloafing,
neutralizing and organisational justice”. Journal of Organisational
Behaviour, 23(5), 675-694.
Mahatanankoon, P.; Anandarajan, M. & Igbaria, M. (2004). “Development
of a Measure of Personal Web Usage in the Workplace”.
Cyberpsychology & Behaviour, 7(1), 93-104.
Manrique, P. Z. & Mesa, O. A. (2010). “Bringing cyber loafers back on the
rights track”. Industrial management & Data systems, 110, 1038-
1053.
Manrique, P. Z. (2008). “Inequity, conflict, and compliance dilemma as
causes of cyber loafing”. International Journal of Conflict
Management, 20, 188-201.
Rajah, R. (2011). “Cyberloafing, neutralization and organizational
citizenship behavior”. Social Science Quarterly, 84(1), 111–121.
Ramayah, T. (2010). “Personal web usage and work inefficiency”. Business
Strategy Series, 11(5), 295-301.
Selwyn, N. (2008). “A safe haven for misbehaving? An investigation of on
line misbehavior among university students”. Social Science
Computer Review. 26, 446-465.
Venkatraman, S. (2008). The "Darth" side of technology use: Cyberdeviant
workplace behaviors. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of Philosophy in
Business Adminstration.
Vitak, J.; Crouse, J. & LaRose, R. (2011). “Personal Internet use at work:
Understanding cyberslacking”. Computers in Human Behaviour, 27,
1751-1759.
Weatherbee, T.G. (2012). “Counterproductive use of technology at work:
Information & communications technologies and cyberdeviancy”.
Human Resource Management Review, 20, 35-44.
Young, K.S. (2010). “Policies and procedures to manage employee Internet
abuse”. Computers in Human Behaviour, 1-5.
Zoghbi, P. (2012). “Reconsidering the boundaries of the cyberloafing
activity: the case of a university”. Behaviour & Information
Technology, 31(5), 469-479.