Reform by reflection: Schön’s legacy to management practice in times of uncertainty

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Management, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Coach Consulting Group, Tehran, Iran


In this paper, we revisit Donald Schön’s scholarly work on “handling uncertainty”, suggesting that in order to cope reasonably well with uncertainty, practitioners should be encouraged to take a reflective existential stance, aimed to explore their own tacit personal style (i.e., theories-in-use). They should (i) recall and reflect on their theories-in-use to bear on the phenomenon, (ii) metaphorically explore and establish analogies, and (iii) seek to frame manageable problems while (iv) coping with the anxiety this creates. They should bear in mind that there cannot be an ideal outcome. Some practical implications are also discussed.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

تحول از طریق تأمل: میراث دونالد شون برای علم مدیریت در زمان عدم قطعیت

Authors [Persian]

  • هومن عطار 1
  • سیدمحمد رضا شهابی 1
  • مهدیس محمدی کیا کله املشی 2
1 دانشکده مدیریت ، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران، ایران
2 شرکت مدیریت مشاوره کوچ، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

در این مقاله مطالعات دونالد شون در خصوص شرایط عدم قطعیت بازبینی‌ و پیشنهاد می‌شود برای مقابله با این شرایط مدیران باید رویکرد وجودگرا یا اگزیستنسیالیسم اختیار کنند. این رویکرد کمک می‌کند دانش ضمنی یا تلویحی مدیر که مختص به خودش است آشکار شود. شون بحث می‌کند که در شرایط عدم قطعیت، رویکردها و راهکارهای گذشته ممکن است به کار نیاید. باید همانند کودک فضای پیرامون خود را دایم تست نمود ، در هر لحظه تأمل کرده و تجربه یا بازخورد جدید دریافت کرد. لذا شرایط عدم قطعیت از طریق ندای درونی حس و ارزیابی میگردد . این رویکرد عملگرا باعث می‌شود مدیر بتواند قسمتی از فضای پیچیدة عدم قطعیت را به تصویر یا مسئله‌ای کوچکتر و قابل ‌هضم برای خود و اطرافیان تبدیل کند. باید در نظر داشت که تبدیل عدم قطعیت به مسئله‌ای قابل‌حل تنها شروع کار است و این پروسه بارها اصلاح و تکرار می‌شود تا مدیر و اطرافیان بتوانند به‌صورت‌مسئله‌ای مشخص ، مشترک و نسبتا جامع برسند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اگزیستانسیالیسم
  • تأمل در عمل
  • عدم قطعیت
  • عقلانیت فنی
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