Leadership: Where organization studies meet ethics

Document Type: Viewpoint


Department of Sccience and Technology of Education ,University of Rome, Rome ,Italy


Leadership Studies is a new interdisciplinary field of Organization Studies that is growing at a steady rate all over the world. Leadership studies are seen as a branch of Management and Organization Sciences despite its philosophical roots that can be traced back to Plato’s philosophical writings such as Laws, Politics, or The Republic. Starting from Burns’ seminal book, Leadership (1978), and subsequent discussions with American business ethics pioneer Joanne Ciulla, a fundamental methodological question emerged: whether Leadership studies are a normative or a descriptive field of study.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

رهبری: تلاقی مطالعات سازمانی و علم اخلاق

Author [Persian]

  • آنتونیو مارتورانو
گروه علوم و فناوری آموزشی، دانشگاه رم ، رم، ایتالیا
Abstract [Persian]

مطالعات رهبری حوزة نسبتاً نوینی است که در سراسر دنیا با نسبت ثابتی در حال رشد است. چنین مطالعاتی هر چند به لحاظ فلسفی ریشه در نوشته‌های فلسفی افلاطون نظیر قوانین، سیاست، یا جمهوری دارد، برخاسته از رشته‌های مرتبط با علوم مدیریتی و سازمانی است. با مطالعة کتاب رهبری جی. ام. برنز (1978)، همچنین بحث‌های متعاقب آن با جوآن کیولا، سردمدار اخلاق کسب و کار در آمریکا، این سؤال بنیادین روش‌شناسانه به ذهن می‌رسد که آیا مطالعات رهبری در حوزة مطالعات هنجاری قرارمی‌گیرد یا مطالعات توصیفی؟

Keywords [Persian]

  • رهبری
  • فلسفه
  • نظریة توصیفی
  • نظریة هنجاری
Adair-Toteff, C. (2005). Max Weber’s Charisma. Journal of Classical Sociology, 5(2), 189-204.
Andersen, J. A. (2000). Leadership and leadership research, in Dahiya, D.F. (ed.), Current issues in business disciplines, vol. 5, Management II, New Delhi: Spell-bound Publications, 2267-2287.
Avolio, B. (2005). Leadership development in balance. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & stodgill’s handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. 3rd ed., New York: The Free Press.
Bird, C. (1940). Social psychology. New York, Appleton-Century.
Blake, R. R., & Mouton, J. S. (1964). The managerial grid, Houston (TX).
Gulf Press.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Carlyle, T. (1969). Thomas carlyle on heroes and hero-worship and the heroic in history. New York: AMS Press.
Ciulla, J. (2008). Ethics. in Marturano, A. and Gosling, J. (eds.), Leadership the key concepts, cit., 58-62.
Ciulla, J. (1995). Leadership ethics: Mapping the territory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 5-28.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (eds.) (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks (CA), Sage.
Dansereau, F., Graen, G. B., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13(1), 46-78.
Emerson, R. W. (1996). Representative men. Seven Lectures, Cambridge (MA): Belknap Press.
Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Fiedler, F. E. (1993). The leadership situation and the black box in contingency theories. in M. M. Chemers & R. Ayman (Eds.), Leadership theory and research: Perspectives and directions, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 1-28.
Fleishman, E. A., & Harris, E. F. (1962). Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover. Personnel Psychology, 15(2), 43-56.
Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 827-844.
Gosling, J., & Marturano, A. (2008). Introduction. in Marturano, A. and Gosling, J. (eds.), Leadership; The key concepts, cit., xxiii-xxvi.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). The Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of LMX theory of leadership over 25 Years: Applying a multi-level, multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.
Hodginkson, C. (1983). The philosophy of leadership. London, Blackwell.
House, R. J. (1971). A path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness. Administration Science Quarterly, 16(3), 321-339.
House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy and a reformulated theory. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-353
House R., Hanges, P., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. (eds.) (2004). Culture, leadership and organizations. The Globe study of 62 Societies, London: Sage.
Hoyt, C. L. (2009). Leader-followers relations. in Marturano, A. and Gosling, J. (eds.), Leadership; The Key Concepts, cit., 90-94.
Hume, D. (1739). A treatise of human nature. Norton, D. F. and Norton, M.J. (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Jackson, B., & Parry, K (2008). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership. London: Sage.
Kets De Vries, M. F., & Engellau, E. (2004). Are leaders born or are they made?: The case of alexander the great. London: Karnac.
Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Leader-member exchange theory: Another perspective on the leadership process. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 13(1), 1-5.

Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic leadership: A positive development approach. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R.E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, pp. 241-261.
Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationship between personality and performance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56(4), 241-270.
Marturano, A., & Arsenault, P. (2008). Charisma, in Marturano, A. and Gosling, J. (eds.), Leadership; The Key Concepts, cit., 18-22.
Marturano, A., & Gosling, J. (eds.) (2008). Leadership; The key concepts. London: Routledge.
Marturano, A., Wood, M.. & Gosling, J. (2010). Leadership and language games. Philosophy of Management, 9(1), 59-83.
Marturano, A. (2014). A short journey through the unknown life of leadership studies. Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia, 5(3), 326-331.
McCall, M. W. (1976). Leadership research: Choosing gods and devils on the run. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 49 (3), 139-153.
McDowell, J. (1979). Virtue and reason. Monist, 62(3), 331–350.
Nagel, T. (1970). The Possibility of altruism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Popper, K. (1957). Poverty of historicism. London: Routledge.
Price, T. (2008). Transformational leadership. in A. Marturano and J. Gosling (eds.), Leadership, The Key Concepts, cit., 170-174.
Railton, P. (1986). Facts and values. Philosophical Topics, 14(2), 5–31.
Riggio, R. (2009). Leaders - born or made?. Psychology Today, March 18. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/ 200903/leaders-born-or-made. Last Access 1.10.2016.
Rosati, C. (2016). Moral motivation. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-motivation/. Last Access 1.10.2016.
Rost, J. C. (1991). Leadership for the Twenty-First Century. New York: Praeger.
Shafer-Landau, R. (2003). Moral realism: A Defence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). “What's your story?”: A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 395–417.
Smith, M. (1994). The moral problem. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Stodgill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature, Journal of Psychology, 25(1), 35-71.
Tavanti, M. (2008). Transactional leadership. in Marturano, A. and Gosling, J. (eds.), Leadership. The Key Concepts, cit., 166-170.
Tracy, L. (1987). Consideration and initiating structure: Are they basic dimensions of leader behavior?. Social Behavior and Personality, 15(1), 21-33.
Von Hayek, F. A. (1954). The counter-revolution of science: Studies on the abuse of reason. London: Collier-Macmillan.
Weber, M. (2015). Rationalism and modern society. ed. and eng. trans. by T. Waters and D. Waters, London: Palgrave MacMillan, 59-72.