The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance: Mediating Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Business and Management Department, Tishk International University, Sulaimani, Iraq

Abstract

Transformational leaders are accepted as part of the most influential leaders on the employee favorable outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of transformational leadership with employee performance and citizenship behaviors. Further, it examined the correlation between the sub-dimensions of transformational leadership (TL) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). To achieve this, 399 participants were selected through convenience sampling method, and data was collected from them using a survey questionnaire. According to the findings, inspirational motivation had significant and positive effects on employee performance (EP). Furthermore, OCB affected EP partially, while courtesy and conscientiousness had significant positive impacts on EP. Concerning the relationship between TL and OCB, individual consideration was found to have significant and positive effects on courtesy and civic virtue, but not on sportsmanship and conscientiousness, while idealized influence was not found to have any significant relationship with OCB dimensions. Finally, in terms of the OCB’s mediation, individual consideration was shown to have an indirect effect on EP via conscientiousness.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [فارسی]

رابطه بین رهبری تحول آفرین و عملکرد کارکنان: اثرات میانجی رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی

Authors [فارسی]

  • تایلان بودور
  • احمت دمیر
گروه بازرگانی و مدیریت، دانشگاه بین المللی تیشک، سلیمانیه، عراق
Abstract [فارسی]

رهبران تحول آفرین به عنوان رهبرانی با بالاترین میزان اثرگذاری بر خروجی مطلوب کارکنان پذیرفته شده اند. این مطالعه به دنبال بررسی رابطه رهبری تحول آفرین با عملکرد کارکنان و رفتارهای شهروندی بود. به علاوه، همبستگی بین ابعاد رهبری تحول آفرین و رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی مورد تحقیق قرار گرفت. به این منظور، 399 شرکت کننده از طریق روش نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند، و داده های مربوطه از طریق یک فرم نظرسنجی جمع آوری شد. طبق یافته ها، انگیزه الهام بخش اثرات مثبت معناداری بر عملکرد کارکنان داشت. به علاوه، رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی به شکل نسبی بر عملکرد کارکنان تاثیر داشت، در حالی که ادب و وجدان کاری اثرات مثبت معناداری بر عملکرد کارکنان داشتند. درباره رابطه بین رهبری تحول آفرین و رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی، ملاحظات فردی دارای اثرات مثبت معنادار بر ادب و فضیلت مدنی و فاقد هرگونه رابطه معناداری با رفتارهای شهرونی سازمانی بود، در حالی که هیچ گونه رابطه معناداری بین اثر ایده آل و ابعاد رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی یافت نشد. نهایتا، در مورد رابطه میانجی رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی مشخص شد که ملاحظات فردی دارای یک اثر غیرمستقیم بر عملکرد سازمانی از طریق وجدان کاری است.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی
  • رهبری تحول آفرین
  • عملکرد کارکنان
  • بنگاه های کوچک و متوسط
  • کردستان
Akdere, M., & Egan, T. (2020). Transformational leadership and human resource development: Linking employee learning, job satisfaction, and organizational performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 31(4), 393-421.
Ali, U., & Waqar, S. (2013). Teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior working under different leadership styles. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 28(2)…, 297-316.
Aloustani, S., Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F., Zagheri-Tafreshi, M., Nasiri, M., Barkhordari-Sharifabad, M., & Skerrett, V. (2020). Association between ethical leadership, ethical climate and organizational citizenship behavior from nurses’ perspective: A descriptive correlational study. BMC Nursing, 19(1), 1-8.
Anshori, M. Y., Karya, D. F., Muslihah, N., & Herlambang, T. (2020). Analysis of transformational leadership style for employee performance with job satisfaction as intervening variable. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(9s), 3967-3973.
Argentero, P., Cortese, C. G., & Ferretti, M. S. (2008). An evaluation of organizational citizenship behavior: Psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of Podsakoff et al.’s scale. TPM–Testing, Psichometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 15(2), 61-75.
Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly22(2), 127-152.
Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 199-218.
Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (2004). Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). Mind Garden, …, 29, 481-498.
Avolio, B. J., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Bhatia, P. (2004). Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior25(8), 951-968.
Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1990), "Developing Transformational Leadership: 1992 and beyond", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 14 No. 5, 21-27.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Collier Macmillan.
Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology8(1), 9-32.
Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee “citizenship.” Academy of Management Journal26(4), 587-595.
Becker, T. E., & Kernan, M. C. (2003). Matching commitment to supervisors and organizations to in-role and extra-role performance. Human Performance, 16(4), 327-348.
Biswas, S., & Varma, A. (2012). Antecedents of employee performance: An empirical investigation in India. Employee Relations … Vol. 34 No. 2, pp. 177-192.
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 710-725.
Budur, T. (2018). The impact of Al-Ghazali’s virtues on organizational commitment and performance: A case study at private education institutions in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. ICABEP, 2, 196-208.
Budur, T. & Demir, A. (2019). Leadership effects on employee perception about CSR in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(4), 184-192.
Budur, T., & Poturak, M. (2021). Transformational leadership and its impact on customer satisfaction: Measuring mediating effects of organisational citizenship behaviours. Middle East Journal of Management, 8(1), 67-91.
Buil, I., Martínez, E., & Matute, J. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee performance: The role of identification, engagement and proactive personality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 77, 64-75.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row.
Carter, M. Z., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Mossholder, K. W. (2013). Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior34(7), 942-958.
Chammas, C. B., & Hernandez, J. M. D. C. (2019). Comparing transformational and instrumental leadership: The influence of different leadership styles on individual employee and financial performance in Brazilian startups. Innovation & Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 143-160.
Cho, J., & Dansereau, F. (2010). Are transformational leaders fair? A multi-level study of transformational leadership, justice perceptions, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 409-421.
Choong, K. K. (2014). Has this large number of performance measurement publications contributed to its better understanding? A systematic review for research and applications. International Journal of Production Research, 52(14), 4174-4197.
Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). Wiley.
Conger, J. A., Kanungo, R. N., & Menon, S. T. (2000). Charismatic leadership and follower effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 21(7), 747-767.
Crede, M., Jong, J., & Harms, P. (2019). The generalizability of transformational leadership across cultures: A meta-analysis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, … Vol. 34 No. 3, pp. 139-155.
Dartey-Baah, K., Anlesinya, A. and Lamptey, Y. (2019). Leadership behaviors and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of job involvement. International Journal of Business, 24(1), 74-95.
Datche, A. E., & Mukulu, E. (2015). The effects of transformational leadership on employee engagement: A survey of civil service in Kenya. Issues in Business Management and Economics, Vol.3 (1), pp. 9-16.
Demir, A. & Budur, T.  (2019). Roles of leadership styles in corporate social responsibility to non- governmental organizations (NGOs). International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(4), 174-183
Driscoll, D. L. (2011). Introduction to primary research: Observations, surveys, and interviews. Writing spaces: Readings on writing, 2(2011), 153-174.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics…. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Forza, C., & Filippini, R. (1998). TQM impact on quality conformance and customer satisfaction: A causal model. International Journal of Production Economics55(1), 1-20.
Hadžiahmetović, N., Demir, S., & Budur, T. (2022). Leadership Style and Affective Commitment at Family Businesses. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 9(1), 318-335.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (Vol. 7). …, 629-686.
Hassan, S. (2015). Change in scores of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in Iraq by using individual level of measures: A case study of Iraqi Kurds. Change, 7(9), …212-225.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5). Sage.
Humphrey, A. (2012). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors: The role of organizational identification. The Psychologist-Manager Journal15(4), 247-268.
Indrayanto, A., Burgess, J., & Dayaram, K. (2014). A case study of transformational leadership and para-police performance in Indonesia. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 37(2), 373-388.
Jiang, W., Zhao, X., & Ni, J. (2017). The impact of transformational leadership on employee sustainable performance: The mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. Sustainability, 9(9), 1-17.
Kalsoom, Z., Khan, M. A., & Zubair, D. S. S. (2018). Impact of transactional leadership and transformational leadership on employee performance: A case of FMCG industry of Pakistan. Industrial Engineering Letters, 8(3), 23-30.
Kamdar, D., & Van Dyne, L. (2007). The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Journal of Applied Psychology92(5), 1286-1298.
Kaya, A. (2015). The relationship between spiritual leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors: A research on school principals’ behaviors. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(3), 597-606…
Kent, A., & Chelladurai, P. (2001). Perceived transformational leadership, organizational commitment, and citizenship behavior: A case study in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Management, 15(2), 135-159.
Khalili, A. (2017). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(7), 1004-1015. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-11-2016-0269
Khan, N. A., Khan, A. N., Soomro, M. A., & Khan, S. K. (2020). Transformational leadership and civic virtue behavior: Valuing act of thriving and emotional exhaustion in the hotel industry. Asia Pacific Management Review, 25(4), 216-225.
Khan, R., Rehman, A. U., & Fatima, A. (2009). Transformational leadership and organizational innovation: Moderated by organizational size. African Journal of Business Management3(11), 678-684.
Khaola, P., & Rambe, P. (2021). The effects of transformational leadership on organisational citizenship behaviour: The role of organisational justice and affective commitment. Management Research Review, 44(3), 381-398.
Khine, M. S. (Ed.). (2013). Application of structural equation modeling in educational research and practice (Vol. 7). Sense Publishers.
Kidwell Jr, R. E., Mossholder, K. W., & Bennett, N. (1997). Cohesiveness and organizational citizenship behavior: A multilevel analysis using work groups and individuals. Journal of Management23(6), 775-793.
Kim, H. (2014). Transformational leadership, organizational clan culture, organizational affective commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior: A case of South Korea’s public sector. Public Organization Review14(3), 397-417.
Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J. L., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal52(4), 744-764.
Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1996). Direct and indirect effects of three core charismatic leadership components on performance and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(1), 36-51.
Kotrlik, J. W. K. J. W., & Higgins, C. C. H. C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1), 43-50.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Krishnan, V. R., & Arora, P. (2008). Determinants of transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Asia Pacific Business Review4(1), 34-43.
Lee, S. M., Lee, D., & Kang, C. Y. (2012). The impact of high-performance work systems in the health-care industry: Employee reactions, service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. The Service Industries Journal32(1), 17-36.
Lee, Y. H., Woo, B., & Kim, Y. (2018). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating role of affective commitment. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(3), 373-382.
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2000). The effects of transformational leadership on organizational conditions and student engagement with school. Journal of Educational Administration38(2), 112-129.
Li, H., Sajjad, N., Wang, Q., Muhammad Ali, A., Khaqan, Z., & Amina, S. (2019). Influence of transformational leadership on employees’ innovative work behavior in sustainable organizations: Test of mediation and moderation processes. Sustainability, 11(6), 1-21.
Lin, C. C. T., & Peng, T. K. T. (2010). From organizational citizenship behavior to team performance: The mediation of group cohesion and collective efficacy. Management and Organization Review6(1), 55-75.
Ling, Y., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M. H., & Veiga, J. F. (2008). The impact of transformational CEOs on the performance of small-to medium-sized firms: Does organizational context matter? Journal of Applied Psychology93(4), 923-934.
Linge, T. K., & Sikalieh, D. (2019). Influence of inspirational motivation on employee job performance in the insurance industry in Kenya. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 8(6), 1-7.
Luthans, F., Norman, S. M., Avolio, B. J., & Avey, J. B. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate—employee performance relationship.  Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior29(2), 219-238.
Luthans, K. (2000). Recognition: A powerful, but often overlooked, leadership tool to improve employee performance. Journal of Leadership Studies7(1), 31-39.
Ma’toufi, A. R., & Tajeddini, K. (2015). The impact of learning orientation on entrepreneurial orientation and innovation in small-sized business firms. Middle East Journal of Management, 2(3), 252-267.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1991). Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of managerial evaluations of salespersons’ performance. Organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes50(1), 123-150.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1993). The impact of organizational citizenship behavior on evaluations of salesperson performance. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 70-80.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Rich, G. A. (2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and salesperson performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science29(2), 115-134.
Majeed, N., Ramayah, T., Mustamil, N. M., Nazri, M., & Jamshed, S. (2017). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Modeling emotional intelligence as mediator. Management & Marketing, 12(4), 571-590.
Matzler, K., Schwarz, E., Deutinger, N., & Harms, R. (2008). The relationship between transformational leadership, product innovation and performancein SMEs. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship21(2), 139-151.
Mi, L., Gan, X., Xu, T., Long, R., Qiao, L., & Zhu, H. (2019). A new perspective to promote organizational citizenship behaviour for the environment: The role of transformational leadership. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, 118002.
Mohammed, S. S., Suleyman, C., & Taylan, B. (2020). Burnout determinants and consequences among university lecturers. Amazonia Investiga, 9(27), 13-24.
Mulki, J. P., Locander, W. B., Marshall, G. W., Harris, E. G., & Hensel, J. (2008). Workplace isolation, salesperson commitment, and job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management28(1), 67-78.
Nguni, S., Sleegers, P., & Denessen, E. (2006). Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17(2), 145-177.
Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management journal36(3), 527-556.
Nohe, C., & Hertel, G. (2017). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: A meta-analytic test of underlying mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-13.
Orabi, T. G. A. (2016). The impact of transformational leadership style on organizational performance: Evidence from Jordan. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 6(2), 89-102.
Organ, D. W. (1988). A restatement of the satisfaction-performance hypothesis. Journal of Management14(4), 547-557.
Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human performance10(2), 85-97.
Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Sage.
Osman‐Gani, A.M., Hashim, J. and Ismail, Y. (2013), "Establishing linkages between religiosity and spirituality on employee performance", Employee Relations, Vol. 35 No. 4, pp. 360-376.
Pahos, N., & Galanaki, E. (2019). Staffing practices and employee performance: The role of age. Evidence-Based HRM, 7(1), 93-112.
Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal49(2), 327-340.
Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior31(4), 609-623.
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestion for future research. Human Performance10(2), 133-151.
Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of applied psychology, 82(2), 262.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management22(2), 259-298.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly1(2), 107-142.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management26(3), 513-563.
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research31(3), 351-363.
Purvanova, R. K., & Bono, J. E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343-357.
Rawung, F. H., Wuryaningrat, N. F., & Elvinita, L. E. (2015). The influence of transformational and transactional leadership on knowledge sharing: An empirical study on small and medium businesses in Indonesia. … The Asian Academy of Management Journal, 20(1), 123-145
Reynolds, K. E., & Beatty, S. E. (1999). Customer benefits and company consequences of customer-salesperson relationships in retailing. Journal of Retailing75(1), 11-13.
Rita, M., Randa Payangan, O., Rante, Y., Tuhumena, R., & Erari, A. (2018). Moderating effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the effect of organizational commitment, transformational leadership and work motivation on employee performance. International Journal of Law and Management60(4), 953-964.
Rodrigues, A. D. O., & Ferreira, M. C. (2015). The impact of transactional and transformational leadership style on organizational citizenship behaviors. Psychology at Universidade São Francisco (USF), 20(3), 493-504.
Sahibzada, S., Kakakhel, S. J., & Khan, A. (2016). Role of leaders’ idealized influence and inspirational motivation on employees’ job satisfaction. University of Haripur Journal of Management, 1(2), 86-92.
Sakiru, O. K., D’Silva, J. L., Othman, J., DaudSilong, A., & Busayo, A. T. (2013). Leadership styles and job satisfaction among employees in small and medium enterprises. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(13), 34-41.
Saleem, M. A., Bhutta, Z. M., Nauman, M., & Zahra, S. (2019). Enhancing performance and commitment through leadership and empowerment: An emerging economy perspective. International Journal of Bank Marketing37(1), 303-322.
Scotti, D. J., Driscoll, A. E., Harmon, J., & Behson, S. J. (2007). Links among high-performance work environment, service quality, and customer satisfaction: An extension to the healthcare sector. Journal of Healthcare Management52(2), 109-124…
Selamat, M. H., & Ran, G. W. (2019). The mediating effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the organizational justice and organizational performance in small and medium-sized enterprise of China. International Journal of Business and Management; 14 (9), 173-187.
Sevi, E. (2010). Effects of organizational citizenship behaviour on group performance: Results from an agent-based simulation model. Journal of Modelling in Management5(1), 25-37.
Smith, C. A. O. D. W. N. J. P., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653-663.
Sulich, A., Sołoducho-Pelc, L., & Ferasso, M. (2021). Management styles and decision-making: Pro-ecological strategy approach. Sustainability, 13(4), 1-18.
Sundi, K. (2013). Effect of transformational leadership and transactional leadership on employee performance of Konawe Education Department at Southeast Sulawesi Province. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(12), 50-58.
Tajeddini, K., Ratten, V., & Denisa, M. (2017). Female tourism entrepreneurs in Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31 (2017), 52-58.
Tajeddini, K. (2016). Analyzing the influence of learning orientation and innovativeness on performance of public organizations: The case of Iran. Journal of Management Development, 35(2), 134-153.
Tajeddini, K., & Trueman, M. (2008). Effect of customer orientation and innovativeness on business performance: A study of small-sized service retailers. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 6(2), 280-295.
Terglav, K., Ruzzier, M. K., & Kaše, R. (2016). Internal branding process: Exploring the role of mediators in top management’s leadership–commitment relationship. International Journal of Hospitality Management54, 1-11.
Tian, H., Shuja Iqbal, S. A., Qalati, S. A., Anwar, F., & Khan, M. A. S. (2020). The impact of transformational leadership on employee retention: Mediation and moderation through organizational citizenship behavior and communication. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(1), 71-78.
Top, C., Abdullah, B. M. S., & Faraj, A. H. M. (2020). Transformational leadership impact on employees’ performance. Eurasian Journal of Management & Social Sciences, 1(1), 49-59.
Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2021). Decision-making, leadership and performance links in private education institutes. Rajagiri Management Journal, … 16 (1), 63-85. Doi:10.1108/RAMJ-10-2020-0061.
Trivellas, P., Kakkos, N., Blanas, N., & Santouridis, I. (2015). The impact of career satisfaction on job performance in accounting firms: The mediating effect of general competencies. Procedia Economics and Finance, 33, 468-476.
Turnipseed, D. L. (2002). Are good soldiers good? Exploring the link between organization citizenship behavior and personal ethics. Journal of Business Research55(1), 1-15.
Turnipseed, D. L., & Rassuli, A. (2005). Performance perceptions of organizational citizenship behaviours at work: A bi-level study among managers and employees. British Journal of Management16(3), 231-244.
Uddin, M. J., Luva, R. H., & Hossian, S. M. M. (2013). Impact of organizational culture on employee performance and productivity: A case study of telecommunication sector in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management8(2), 63-77.
Vargas, M. I. R. (2015). Determinant factors for small business to achieve innovation, high performance and competitiveness: Organizational learning and leadership style. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 169, 43-52.
Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., & Pearce, C. L. (2008). The utility of transactional and transformational leadership for predicting performance and satisfaction within a path-goal theory framework. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology81(1), 71-82.
Vigoda, E., & Golembiewski, R. T. (2001). Citizenship behavior and the spirit of new managerialism: A theoretical framework and challenge for governance. The American Review of Public Administration31(3), 273-295.
Wahab, M. A., Quazi, A., & Blackman, D. (2016). Measuring and validating Islamic work value constructs: An empirical exploration using Malaysian samples. Journal of Business Research69(10), 4194-4204.
Walz, S. M., & Niehoff, B. P. (1996, August). Organizational citizenship behaviors and their effect on organizational effectiveness in limited-menu restaurants. Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1996, No. 1, pp. 307-311). Briarcliff Manor, New York.
Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 420-432.
Weldon, E., & Weingart, L. R. (1993). Group goals and group performance. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32(4), 307-334.
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management17(3), 601-617.
Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (2002). The moderating effects of employee tenure on the relation between organizational commitment and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology87(6), 1183-1190.
Yen, H. R., & Niehoff, B. P. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational effectiveness: Examining relationships in Taiwanese banks. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(8), 1617-1637.
Yücel, İ. (2021). Transformational leadership and turnover intentions: the mediating role of employee performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Administrative Sciences, 11(3), 81.
Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly10(2), 285-305.
Yukl, G. (2008). How leaders influence organizational effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(6), 708-722.
Zaim, H., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2020). Ethical leadership, effectiveness and team performance: An Islamic perspective. Middle East Journal of Management, 8(1), 42-66.